English

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Suffix

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-na

  1. (Mid-Ulster) -n't
    • 1892, William Carleton, Amusing Irish Tales:
      Balgruntie wasna that—

Albanian

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Etymology

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Related to unë (I) and maybe further to ne (we).

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Gheg form of -em, the mediopassive first-person singular indicative present ending.
    bëhembâhna (to become, turn into)
    zbehemzbehna (to turn pale)
  2. Gheg form of -mi, the active first-person plural indicative present ending.
    (ne) kena shumë punë për me bo.
    we have much work to do

Aymara

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Suffix

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-na

  1. possessive marker

Curripaco

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Suffix

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-na

  1. third person plural patient marker

References

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  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN), page 398

Czech

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na f (noun-forming suffix)

  1. from nouns forms nouns referring to places
    prodej + ‎-na → ‎prodejna

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -na in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Estonian

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Forms the essive case.

Usage notes

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  • The suffix is appended to the genitive stem or an appropriate plural stem.

Finnish

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Finnic *-na, from the Proto-Uralic locative case ending *-na.

Suffix

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-na (front vowel harmony variant -nä, linguistic notation -nA)

  1. Forms the essive case.
    eräänä kauniina aamunaon a beautiful morning
    Ennen pidit minua kauniina.
    You used to think I was beautiful.
Usage notes
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From Proto-Finnic *-na, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *-na.

Suffix

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-na (front vowel harmony variant -nä, linguistic notation -nA)

  1. Forms action nouns from certain verbs, mainly related to sound, whose first infinitive ends in -sta.
    kutista (to itch) + ‎-na → ‎kutina (itching)
  2. Forms some diminutive nouns.
Alternative forms
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  • -ina (reanalyzed into its own suffix)
Derived terms
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Anagrams

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Garo

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix

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-na

  1. (inflectional suffix) forms the dative case
  2. reason
    Maina na·a rel gariko sraprikjaha?
    For what reason did you not catch the train?

See also

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  • -ni (forms genitive)
  • -ko (forms accusative)
  • -chi (forms instrumental)
  • -no (forms locative)

Hadza

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. a locative suffix
    hama (3rd person masculine singular proximal pronoun)hamana (here)
    bee (3rd person feminine plural given pronoun)beena (there)
    himiggê (3rd person masculine singular invisible pronoun)himiggêna (in/behind there)

Hawaiian

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Etymology

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This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Per the -na entry at Wehewehe, there's also a passive suffix -na, as well as some kind of possessive suffix -na, both from Proto-Polynesian *-na.”

From Proto-Polynesian *-ŋa.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Common nominalizing suffix, sometimes with shortening of a long vowel in the base.
    ʻaiʻaina
    piʻipiʻina

Derived terms

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Hungarian

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. (conditional suffix) Forms the third-person singular present tense of verbs (conditional mood, indefinite conjugation).
    olvas (to read) + ‎-na → ‎olvasna (he/she would read)

Usage notes

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  • (conditional suffix) Variants:
    -na is added to most back vowel verbs
    vár (to wait) + ‎-na → ‎várna (he/she would wait)
    -ne is added to most front vowel verbs
    kér (to ask) + ‎-ne → ‎kérne (he/she would ask)
    -ana is added to back vowel verbs ending in two consonants or in a long vowel + t (exceptions: áll, száll, varr, forr, lát)
    mond (to say something) + ‎-ana → ‎mondana (he/she would say something)
    tanít (to teach) + ‎-ana → ‎tanítana (he/she would teach)
    -ene is added to front vowel verbs ending in two consonants or in a long vowel + t
    fest (to paint) + ‎-ene → ‎festene (he/she would paint)
    segít (to help) + ‎-ene → ‎segítene (he/she would help)

See also

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Ilocano

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ni-a, from Proto-Austronesian *ni-a.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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-na (pronoun-forming suffix)

  1. Third-person singular ergative enclitic pronoun; he, she, it
    Kayatna ti mangan.He/she/it wants to eat.
  2. Third-person singular possessive marker; his, her, its
    Naimas ti makanna.His/her/its food is delicious.
  3. Fossilized enclitic of some adverbials or auxiliary verbs
    Rebbengna nga addaka ditoy.You should be here.
    Kasla nga awan inggana ti utangna.His/her debt seems to be endless.
  4. Referential pronoun used in existential or relative clauses; the (adjective) (ones), those who, the ones who
    Tulongantayo dagiti awan balayna.Let's help the homeless. (Let's help those who do not have homes.)
    Naupay uray dagiti napigsa ti pakinakemna.Even the strong-willed (ones) became disheartened.

See also

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Ingrian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Finnic *-na. Cognates include Finnish -na.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na (front vowel variant -nä)

  1. Used to form place names.
  2. Used to form action nouns from certain verbs related to sounds: -ing
  3. Used to form nouns that resembles a smaller version of the suffixed noun: -y

Declension

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Declension of -na (type 3/koira, no gradation, gemination)
singular plural
nominative -na -nat
genitive -nan -nniin
partitive -nnaa -nnia
illative -nnaa -nnii
inessive -nas -nis
elative -nast -nist
allative -nalle -nille
adessive -nal -nil
ablative -nalt -nilt
translative -naks -niks
essive -nanna, -nnaan -ninna, -nniin
exessive1) -nant -nint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived terms

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Irish

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Alternative form of -ne (used after velarized consonants and back vowels)

Further reading

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Kambera

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Pronoun

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-na

  1. third person singular genitive enclitic

See also

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Laboya

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Pronoun

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-na

  1. third person singular subject enclitic
  2. third person singular possessive enclitic

See also

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Latin spelling of -ნა (-na)

Madurese

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *nia, from Proto-Austronesian *nia. Compare Indonesian -nya, which also has similar function.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. the (definite article)
  2. his, her, its (third-person possessive)
  3. 's (genitive case)
    bukuna Siti
    Siti's book (lit. "Siti his book")

Usage notes

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  • When suffixed to consonant-final words, it is then assimilated to that consonant.
  • When suffixed to word ending in unvoiced stops (p, t, k), the assimilated consonants either become aspirated (bbh, ddh, ggh) or being retained by some speakers (pp, tt, k). As a rule, -a following voiced consonants become .

Further reading

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  • Davies, W. D. (2010) A Grammar of Madurese[1], Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton

Makasar

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *nia, from Proto-Austronesian *nia.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na (possessive suffix, Lontara spelling )

  1. his, her, its, their (third person singular and plural)

See also

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Maltese

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Etymology

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From Arabic ـنَا (-nā).

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na m or f

  1. 1st-person plural pronominal suffix: our; us
    Synonym: tagħna
    jinsa (he forgets) + ‎-na → ‎jinsiena (he forgets us)
    dar (home) + ‎-na → ‎darna (our home)
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Maori

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Used in contractions with particles of possession of third person pronouns.
  2. a passive ending

Derived terms

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See also

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Murui Huitoto

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Cognates include Minica Huitoto -na and Nüpode Huitoto -na.

Classifier

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-na

  1. Classifier for trees.
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Suffix

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-na

  1. Alternative form of -a

Etymology 3

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Suffix

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-na

  1. hypothetical conditional of -de

References

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  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[2], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), pages 197, 134

Old Norse

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Germanic *-inōną.

Suffix

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-na

  1. Used to form inchoative verbs from adjectives
Conjugation
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From Proto-Germanic *-anǫ̂ and *-ōnǫ̂, genitive plural endings of weak neuter and feminine nouns.

Suffix

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-na

  1. Used to form the genitive plural of some weak feminine and neuter nouns
    hjartahjartna
    sagasagna

Etymology 3

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Suffix

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-na

  1. inflection of -inn (adjective suffix):
    1. positive degree strong feminine accusative singular
    2. positive degree strong masculine accusative plural
    3. positive degree weak masculine oblique singular
    4. positive degree weak feminine nominative singular
    5. positive degree weak neuter singular
  2. inflection of -inn (participle suffix):
    1. strong feminine accusative singular
    2. strong masculine accusative plural
    3. weak masculine oblique singular
    4. weak feminine nominative singular
    5. weak neuter singular
  3. inflection of -inn (definite article suffix):
    1. feminine accusative singular
    2. masculine accusative plural

Old Polish

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Etymology

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Derived from Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /naː/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /nɒ/

Suffix

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-na f

  1. forms feminine adjective-like nouns

Derived terms

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Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish -na, from Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /na/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: na
  • Homophone: na

Suffix

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-na f

  1. forms feminine adjective-like nouns -ess
    Synonym: -ka
    arcyksiążę + ‎-na → ‎arcyksiężna
  2. forms feminine adjective-like nouns meaning "wife of"
    Synonym: -owa
    arcyksiążę + ‎-na → ‎arcyksiężna

Declension

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Derived terms

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Quechua

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Not to be confused with -ña

Suffix

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-na

  1. Nominalizer, future perfect participle.
    llamk'ay (to work)llamk'ana (tool, work to be done)
    mikhuy (to eat)mikhuna (food, meal)

See also

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Scots

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Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. -n't
    didna ("did not")
    canna ("can not")
    daurna ("dare not")
    michtna ("might not")

Swedish

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Etymology 1

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From the plural of Old Norse hinn (demonstrative pronoun), suffixed to the end of the noun stem. Usually corresponds to Danish, Norwegian Bokmål and Norwegian Nynorsk -ne.

Alternative forms

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Marker of definiteness on nouns in the plural (except for nouns of the fourth and some of the fifth declension).
    stolar (chairs) + ‎-na → ‎stolarna (the chairs)
    lärare (teachers) + ‎-na → ‎lärarna (the teachers)
Usage notes
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  • In earlier Swedish, the suffix -na was only used for feminine nouns, while -ne was used for masculine nouns, thus "stenarne" (definite of stenar) and "kvinnorna" (definite of kvinnor) were used alongside each other. In attempts to try to produce archaic language, the suffix is sometimes changed to -ne in all positions, producing historically incorrect forms like "kvinnorne".

Etymology 2

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From Old Norse -na, from Proto-Germanic *-naną.

Suffix

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-na

  1. -en; Used with some adjectives or verbal stems to form inchoative verbs
    trött (tired) + ‎-na → ‎tröttna (to tiren, become tired)
Usage notes
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Inchoative verb
The suffix -na may be analysed as two morphemes (-n (inchoative verb stem) + -a (infinitive)). Traditionally the a's near the ends of the Swedish first declension verb forms have been regarded as part of the suffixes, but nowadays it is more common to see it described as part of the stems of these verbs, since all endings not beginning with an a are extinct or considered heavily archaic.
Derived terms
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Anagrams

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Taos

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Suffix

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-na

  1. Singular number inflection. (See also: -ną, -nemą, -ne.)

Uneapa

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Etymology

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From Proto-Oceanic *-ña, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-nia, from Proto-Austronesian *-nia.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-na

  1. A third-person singular possessive suffix.

Further reading

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  • Terry Crowley et al, The Oceanic Languages (2013), page 365

Volapük

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Suffix

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-na

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.