EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From archaic forms ending in e, from Middle English -e, from the coalescence of multiple various endings from Old English.

PronunciationEdit

Silent.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used for archaizing.
    • 1993, Wisconsin Annual Events, page 38:
      YE OLDE ENGLISHE CHRISTMASSE FEASTE: Nine course authentic Renaissance festival banquet.
    • 1996, Orwant, Jon, Perl 5 Interactive Course, →ISBN, page 679:
      Ye Olde Webbe page / Whither thou goest, there thou be.
    • 1999 June 14, Tina Clarke, “Re: How to make LINKS open in new Browser Window?”, in microsoft.public.frontpage.client, Usenet, message-ID <7k1f5j$607$1@news5.svr.pol.co.uk>:
      Go on tell what prob your having at the mo with ye olde computere! You don't get this crusty without one...do u?
    • 2002, Balfour, Bruce, The Forge of Mars, Berkeley Publishing Group, →ISBN:
      “Yes. It’s an English pub called Ye Olde Meate Markete. []

Usage notesEdit

Usually all words of the noun phrase are suffixed, unless the word already ends in e (e.g. smalle quainte towne for "small quaint town"). Commonly used with ye olde and other archaic terms. The consonant at the end of the word is often doubled if it is preceded by a historically short vowel, according to the rules of English spelling (e.g. hogge for "hog", bidde for "bid", etc.).

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

AfrikaansEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Dutch -en.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. The plural ending of many nouns.

Usage notesEdit

  • Generally, -e is used in nouns with final stress and -s otherwise. However, a certain number of inherited nouns deviate (in either direction) and newer loanwords often take -s even after final stress. Small irregular classes are plurals in -ere, -ers, and -ens.
  • A rather large number of plurals in -e show phonetic pecularities such as the following:
    • A short stem vowel may be lengthened: ‎skip (ship) + ‎-e → ‎skepe.
    • Final -d- may be replaced with -i-: ‎pad (path) + ‎-e → ‎paaie.
    • Final -g- may be lost: ‎dag (day) + ‎-e → ‎dae.
    • An underlying final -t- may resurface: ‎nag (night) + ‎-e → ‎nagte.

Central FranconianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -en (see usage notes below)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German -en, from a merger of various Old High German suffixes. The use for the masculine nominative of the adjective (except in south-eastern dialects) goes back to generalisation of the accusative form. The use for the first-person singular goes back to generalisation of Old High German -ōm, -ēm in weak classes II and III, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-mi.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. A common noun plural ending, especially in feminines.
  2. A common adjectival declension ending, especially in the masculine nominative/accusative and the weak dative of all genders.
  3. A common conjugation ending, especially in the infinitive, first-person singular and plural, and third-person plural.

Usage notesEdit

  • In Ripuarian and eastern Moselle Franconian, the basic form of the suffix is -e. It becomes -en before vowel-initial words, especially within the noun or verb phrase (thus similarly to French liaison). Optionally the same may also occur before h, d, t, z.
  • In western Moselle Franconian, the basic form of the suffix is -en, but the final -n is lost when followed by a consonant other than h, d, t, z – a process called Eifeler Regel and also active in Luxembourgish.
  • These two systems are ultimately very similar, the only major difference being the form the suffix takes in pausa, i.e. in isolation or before a speech pause. For simplicity, therefore, Wiktionary's coverage of Central Franconian uses the e-form as general lemma form for all dialects. The -n must then be added depending on the phonetic environment and the dialect in question.

CzechEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. used to form adverbs from adjectives
    jednoduchý (simple) + ‎-e → ‎jednoduše (simply)

Etymology 2Edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ę.

SuffixEdit

-e n

  1. (rare) used to form nouns, usually terms for young animals

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. desinence used to form dative singular and locative singular of some feminine nouns
    sestra (sister) + ‎-e → ‎sestře
  2. desinence used to form genitive singular, nominative plural, accusative plural and vocative plural of some feminine nouns
    kostrč (tailbone) + ‎-e → ‎kostrče
  3. desinence used to form vocative singular of some masculine animate nouns
    pan (Mr, Sir) + ‎-e → ‎pane
  4. desinence used to form genitive singular, accusative singular and accusative plural of some masculine animate nouns
    muž (man) + ‎-e → ‎muže
  5. desinence used to form vocative singular and locative singular of some masculine inanimate nouns
    les (forest) + ‎-e → ‎lese
  6. desinence used to form genitive singular, nominative plural, accusative plural and vocative plural of some masculine inanimate nouns
    stroj (machine) + ‎-e → ‎stroje

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • -e/-ě in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

DanishEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Marks the infinitive of many or most verbs, and is usually appended to borrowed verbs.
  2. Marks the singular/definite of adjectives.
  3. Marks the plural of some nouns.

DutchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. suffix indicating the female form of occupations or inhabitants of countries
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /də/, /stə/ (like the ordinal written in full)

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Placed after a number written in digits, to form its corresponding ordinal number.
    2e = tweede
    8e = achtste
    Synonyms: -de, -ste
Usage notesEdit

The e is sometimes written in superscript, like in French (2e, 8e), but this is discouraged by the Dutch Language Union.[1]

Etymology 3Edit

From various suffixes of the Middle Dutch [Term?] adjective inflection.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used to create the inflected form of an adjective, which is used after a definite determiner, or before masculine and feminine nouns in general.

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Dutch -e, from Old Dutch -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. (archaic, rare) Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives; the nouns express the quality of the adjective.
    koud (cold) + ‎-e → ‎koude (the cold)
    Synonyms: -te, -heid

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle Dutch -e, the ending of the first and third person singular subjunctive.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. (archaic) Used to form the singular subjunctive of a verb.

ReferencesEdit

EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the Latin and Italian adverbial suffix -e (as in bene "well"), perhaps reinforced by the Russian adverbial -e found after a palatalized consonant.

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs
    bona (good) + ‎-e → ‎bone (well)
    unu (one) + ‎-e → ‎unue (firstly)
  2. the ending for correlatives of place

Derived termsEdit

correlatives
  • ĉie (everywhere)
  • ie (somewhere)
  • kie (where)
  • nenie (nowhere)
  • tie (there)

EstonianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ek and Proto-Finnic *-eh. Cognate to Finnish -e.

SuffixEdit

-e (genitive -e, partitive -et)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    katma (to cover) + ‎-e → ‎kate (cover)
    astuma (to step) + ‎-e → ‎aste (a step)
    võtma (to take) + ‎-e → ‎võte (trick, mode, way)
    mõtlema (to think) + ‎-e → ‎mõte (thought)

Etymology 2Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-e (genitive -me, partitive -et)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    liikuma (to move) + ‎-e → ‎liige (member)
    astuma (to step) + ‎-e → ‎aste (step, grade)
    kastma (to dip) + ‎-e → ‎kaste (sauce)

Etymology 3Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-e (genitive -eda, partitive -edat)

  1. Derives adjectives.
    lamama (to lay down) + ‎-e → ‎lame (flat)
    krõbisema (to crunch) + ‎-e → ‎krõbe (crunchy)
    tobu (fool) + ‎-e → ‎tobe (silly, dumb)
DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Conflated:

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used for forming nouns from verbs or adjectives.
    ottaa (to take (hold of)) + ‎-e → ‎ote (grip)
    paha (bad, evil) + ‎-e → ‎pahe (vice)
    ääntää (to pronounce, enunciate) + ‎-e → ‎äänne (sound (in phonetics))

DeclensionEdit

Inflection of -e (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -etta -eita
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
accusative nom. -e -eet
gen. -een
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -etta -eita
inessive -eessa -eissa
elative -eesta -eista
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
adessive -eella -eilla
ablative -eelta -eilta
allative -eelle -eille
essive -eena -eina
translative -eeksi -eiksi
instructive -ein
abessive -eetta -eitta
comitative -eineen
Possessive forms of -e (type hame)
possessor singular plural
1st person -eeni -eemme
2nd person -eesi -eenne
3rd person -eensa
Inflection of -e (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -että -eitä
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
accusative nom. -e -eet
gen. -een
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -että -eitä
inessive -eessä -eissä
elative -eestä -eistä
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
adessive -eellä -eillä
ablative -eeltä -eiltä
allative -eelle -eille
essive -eenä -einä
translative -eeksi -eiksi
instructive -ein
abessive -eettä -eittä
comitative -eineen
Possessive forms of -e (type hame)
possessor singular plural
1st person -eeni -eemme
2nd person -eesi -eenne
3rd person -eensä

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

FrenchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

  • silent; causes previous silent consonant to become pronounced

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. forms the feminine of adjectives and nouns
    fort + ‎-e → ‎forte
    garçon + ‎-e → ‎garçonne

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

-e (plural -es)

  1. abbreviation of -ième when an ordinal number is written with Arabic or Roman numerals
    deuxième2e

GaroEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. forms the perfect participle of a verb
    Skul re·e anga nengbea
    After going to school I was tired

GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle High German -e, from Old High German , from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. (now chiefly unproductive) used to form nouns from adjectives, sometimes with umlaut of the root vowel; the nouns express the quality of the adjective
    stark (strong) + ‎-e → ‎Stärke (strength)

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle High German -e, a merger of various Old High German vocalic endings.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. used to form the plural of some nouns; in masculines and feminines, but not in neuters, usually triggering umlaut of the root vowel
    Baum (tree) + ‎-e → ‎Bäume (trees)
    Nacht (night) + ‎-e → ‎Nächte (nights)
    Wort (word) + ‎-e → ‎Worte (words)
  2. (chiefly dated) used to form the dative of strong masculine and neuter nouns ending in a stressed syllable
    das Haus (house)dem Hause (usually: dem Haus)
  3. used to form various declined adjective forms, notably the nominative/accusative feminine singular
    schöndie schöne Frau
  4. used to form the 1st person singular present indicative (and subjunctive) of a verb
    gehen (geh- + -en) → ich gehe (colloquial or poetic: ich geh)
  5. used to form the 3rd person singular present subjunctive of a verb
    gehener gehe
  6. used to form the 1st and 3rd person singular past subjunctive of a verb
    gingich ginge, er ginge

Etymology 3Edit

PronounEdit

-e

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of du after 2nd person singular forms of a verb.
    hast duhaste

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd‑person pronoun as possessor, usually construed with the definite article) hisherits …
      ház(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)élet(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)barát(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)kapu(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)palota(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)kert(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)betű(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)vese(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor)-'s, of … (third-person singular, single possession)
      Anna háza (Anna’s house), a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)Anna élete (Anna’s life), a város élete (the life of the city)a király palotája (the king’s palace)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden), a tulipán kertje (the garden of the tulip)
    3. (with a plural possessor)-s’, of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      a szüleim háza (my parents’ house), a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life), a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden), Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with instantaneous time expressions) … ago (referring to a preceding point in time considered as an instant)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left one century / two years / one hour / a long time ago.
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt, e.g. egy évszázaddal, két évvel ezelőtt
    5. (with durative time expressions) for … (referring to some duration that precedes the point of time in question)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century / two years / an hour / a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of …, out of(partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)
  2. (personal suffix) [from the end of the 12th century]
    1. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel verbs. Today it can be found in the third-person singular definite forms (indicative past and imperative conjugations) as part of the suffix -ja/-je, -ta/-te.
      tud (to know)tudta (he/she knew it)
      tudtudja (he/she knows it (indicative mood))
      tudtudja (he/she should know it (subjunctive mood))
      kér (to request, ask for sth)kérte (he/she requested it)
      kérkérje (he/she should request it (subjunctive mood))
    2. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel conjugated infinitives and in the declined and postposition forms of the third-person personal pronoun ő (he/she/it).
      tanulni (to study)tanulnia kell (he/she must study, literally it is necessary for him/her to study)
      kérni (to request, ask for)kérnie kell (he/she must request [it], literally it is necessary for him/her to request)
      -ról (about)róla (about him/her/it)
      -től (from)tőle (from him/her/it)
      után (after)utána (after him/her/it)
      fölött (above)fölötte (above him/her/it)
Usage notesEdit
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children’s ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words
    -e is added to front-vowel words
Note that the corresponding (third-person singular) indicative mood of front-vowel verbs is -i, e.g. kéri (s/he requests it).
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -e
accusative -ét
dative -ének
instrumental -ével
causal-final -éért
translative -évé
terminative -éig
essive-formal -eként
essive-modal -éül
inessive -ében
superessive -én
adessive -énél
illative -ébe
sublative -ére
allative -éhez
elative -éből
delative -éről
ablative -étől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-éé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-ééi

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (rare, mostly dialectal)

ParticleEdit

-e (clitic)

  1. whether, if
    Nem tudom, [hogy] voltál-e már Budapesten.I don't know if you've ever been in Budapest.
  2. (folksy) Suffix for yes/no tag questions. Always optional since word order and intonation make the question clear.
    Látod-e már a mezőket?Can you see the fields yet?
    • 1857, János Arany, A walesi bárdok (The Bards of Wales), translated by Watson Kirkconnell[1]
      Van-e ott folyó és földje jó? / Legelőin fű kövér? / Használt-e a megöntözés: / A pártos honfivér?
      Are stream and mountain fair to see? / Are meadow grasses good? / Do corn-lands bear a crop more rare / Since wash’d with rebel’s blood?
      (Note: From a grammatical point of view, the Hungarian text could also include -e at “…földje jó-e?” and “…fű kövér-e?” or alternatively, all instances of -e could be removed without changing the meaning.)
Usage notesEdit

Always written with a hyphen. Used in tag (yes/no) questions, but not all such questions use -e: in most cases a question is indicated only by emphasis and question mark. Always attached to the main word (usually the verb) of the predicate of the phrase.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form the third-person singular indicative past indefinite, for front-vowel verbs. The back-vowel version is -a. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, -ett or -ött. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Etymology 4Edit

See at -a.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. (obsolete participle suffix) Synonym of (present-participle suffix) The back-vowel version is -a. Sometimes it also occurs as or -i.
Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • (whether, if): -e in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (whether, if): -e in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (’A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2023)

IdoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Esperanto -e, from Latin .

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs

Usage notesEdit

Any adjective can be converted into an adverb by swapping the -a suffix by -e.

IngrianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Conflated:

Cognates include Finnish -e and Estonian -e.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used to form nouns from either verbs or adjectives.
    lähtiä (to begin) + ‎-e → ‎lähe (spring)

DeclensionEdit

(back-vocalic)
Declension of -e (type 6/lähe, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -ein
partitive -etta -eita
illative -eesse -eisse
inessive -ees -eis
elative -eest -eist
allative -eelle -eille
adessive -eel -eil
ablative -eelt -eilt
translative -eeks -eiks
essive -eenna, -een -einna, -ein
exessive1) -eent -eint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
(front-vocalic)
Declension of -e (type 6/lähe, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -ein
partitive -että -eitä
illative -eesse -eisse
inessive -ees -eis
elative -eest -eist
allative -eelle -eille
adessive -eel -eil
ablative -eelt -eilt
translative -eeks -eiks
essive -eennä, -een -einnä, -ein
exessive1) -eent -eint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived termsEdit

IrishEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Alternative form of -ne (used after -nn in pronouns)

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. Used to form nouns from adjectives

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used to form the genitive singular of second-declension nouns
  2. Used to form the plural of certain nouns

ItalianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /e/ (stress falls on the preceding syllable)
  • Syllabification: -e

SuffixEdit

-e (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used with a stem to form the third-person present of regular -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that don't take "isco"

JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

-e

  1. Rōmaji transcription of

LatinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Compare with Proto-Germanic *-ê. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(comparative -ius, superlative -issimē)

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    Synonyms: -iter, , -ter
Usage notesEdit

The suffix is usually added to a first/second-declension adjective stem to form an adverb of manner.

Examples:
clārus (famous, clear) + ‎ → ‎clārē (famously, clearly)
pulcher (beautiful) + ‎ → ‎pulchrē (beautifully)
DescendantsEdit
  • Esperanto: -e

Etymology 2Edit

A regularly declined form of -us.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. vocative masculine singular of -us

See alsoEdit

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
  2. Used to form (feminine) nouns from verb stems.
    iestādīt + ‎-e → ‎iestāde
    skatīt + ‎-e → ‎skate)

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

Feminine suffixes that include -e

Lower SorbianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

SuffixEdit

-e n

  1. Noun suffix, mostly used for young animals.
    robel (sparrow) + ‎-e → ‎roble (baby sparrow)

MaquiritariEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Forms adverbs with a participle-like meaning from verbs; must be accompanied by the prefix t- and an indicator specifying the role of the verb argument to which the participle refers (intransitive argument w-, transitive agent n-, or transitive patient ∅-).
  2. Forms adverbs from verbs, expressing the destination of the movement described by a main motion verb or copula to which the derived term becomes subordinate.

Usage notesEdit

This suffix can trigger syllable reduction on the preceding syllable. The suffix takes the form -ke when the preceding syllable is reducible and has an onset of k, -ye when the preceding syllable ends in i, -e when it ends in u or ü or a reduced syllable, and -∅ (a null suffix) after other vowels (a, e, o, ö).

It is unclear if t- -e is best analyzed as an adverbializing circumfix or as a separate unspecified person prefix t- and adverbializing suffix -e.

The derivation expressing destination of motion also takes prefixes.

ReferencesEdit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “-e”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 151–152, 154

Middle DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Dutch -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives, mostly those expressing physical properties.
    Synonyms: -ede, -heit

Usage notesEdit

This suffix originally triggered umlaut of the root vowel. This is seen in some words (kelde, from cout), but not in others (coude).

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Middle EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From a variety of Old English adjectival inflectional suffixes.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Forms the weak singular and plural of adjectives.
Derived termsEdit
ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old French -e, -ee, from Latin -ātus, -āta. Compare -at, -te, -ite.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e (no longer productive)

  1. Forms nouns denoting an office or function.
  2. Forms pseudo-participial nouns from verbs or other nouns:
    1. Forms nouns denoting the presence of something.
    2. Forms nouns denoting one who an action is done to.
    3. Forms nouns denoting something made or applied.
      fige (fig) + ‎-e → ‎figee (fig pudding)
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Old English -a.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e (no longer productive)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbal or nominal stems.
Derived termsEdit
ReferencesEdit

Etymology 4Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Alternative form of -y

Etymology 5Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Alternative form of -yf

Etymology 6Edit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Alternative form of -ie

Murui HuitotoEdit

PronunciationEdit

ClassifierEdit

-e

  1. Classifier with no specific meaning.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[2], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 195

NamuyiEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Used to give the ingressive aspect to verbs

Derived termsEdit

OjibweEdit

FinalEdit

-e

  1. an incorporating final

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

Old EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From West Germanic *, from Proto-Germanic *-ê, which survives otherwise only in Gothic (and possibly Old Norse).

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. forming adverbs from adjectives; -ly
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-West Germanic *-ī. Beyond that, generally from Proto-Germanic *-ijaz. Note though that -wintre is from Proto-Germanic *-wintruz, since Proto-Germanic u-stem adjectives became ja-stems in West Germanic. Other suffixes derived from u-stem nouns, such as -flēre, might also have been zero derivations in Proto-Germanic.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. forms adjectival suffixes from nouns, often with the meaning "having" (typically causes i-umlaut)
    ān (one) + ‎willa (will) + ‎-e → ‎ānwille (stubborn)
    fela (many) + ‎word (word) + ‎-e → ‎felawyrde (long-winded)
    fīf (five) + ‎flōr (floor) + ‎-e → ‎fīfflēre (five-story)
    fiþer- (four) + ‎sċēat (corner) + ‎-e → ‎fiþersċīete (square)
    forþ (forward) + ‎gang (going) + ‎-e → ‎forþgenġe (progressive)
    īdel (empty) + ‎hand (hand) + ‎-e → ‎īdelhende (empty-handed)
    lang (long) + ‎līf (life) + ‎-e → ‎langlīfe (long-lived)
    ofer- (over-) + ‎ǣt (eating) + ‎-e → ‎oferǣte (gluttonous)
    or- (out of) + ‎blōd (blood) + ‎-e → ‎orblēde (bled out)
    sċeolh (crooked) + ‎ēage (eye) + ‎-e → ‎sċeolhīeġe (crosseyed)
    sīd (hanging down) + ‎feax (hair on the head) + ‎-e → ‎sīdfiexe (long-haired)
    twelf (twelve) + ‎winter (year) + ‎-e → ‎twelfwintre (twelve years old)
    twi- (two) + ‎eċġ (edge) + ‎-e → ‎twieċġe (double-edged)
    twi- (two) + ‎fōt (foot) + ‎-e → ‎twifēte (bipedal)
    un- (un-) + ‎ċēap (cost) + ‎-e → ‎unċīepe (free)

Old FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Latin -a.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. used to form feminine forms of nouns and adjectives

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle French: -e
    • French: -e

Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *-yā (whence also Welsh -edd and Cornish -edh), from Proto-Indo-European *-i-eh₂. Cognate with Ancient Greek -ίᾱ (-íā) and Latin -ia.

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. Forms concrete or abstract nouns from adjectives.
    cathach (bellicose) + ‎-e → ‎cathaige (warlike spirit)
    sáer (free) + ‎-e → ‎saíre (freedom, liberty)

Usage notesEdit

This suffix palatalises the preceding consonant only if it is eligible for Greene's first palatalization. However, sometimes palatalization spreads analogically.

InflectionEdit

Feminine iā-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -eL -iL -i
Vocative -eL -iL -i
Accusative -iN -iL -i
Genitive -e -eL -eN
Dative -iL -ib -ib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived termsEdit

PolishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Inherited from Old Polish -e, from Proto-Slavic *-ьje.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e n

  1. Forms neuter nouns denoting a place, typically from a prepositional phrase
    po + ‎bok + ‎-e → ‎pobocze
  2. Forms adverbs from adjectives, causes softening
    zwykły + ‎-e → ‎zwykle

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • -e in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -e in Polish dictionaries at PWN

PortugueseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Representing French feminine nouns.

PronunciationEdit

 

SuffixEdit

-e f

  1. forms the feminine of nouns
    Juliano + ‎-e → ‎Juliane

Etymology 2Edit

A neologistic suffix that replaces -o and -a in nouns and adjectives.

SuffixEdit

-e n (plural -es)

  1. (gender-neutral, neologism) suffix used to form gender-neutral singular nouns
    filho (son)/‎filha (daughter) + ‎-e → ‎filhe (child)
    moço (young man)/‎moça (young woman) + ‎-e → ‎moce (young)
    amigo (male friend)/‎amiga (female friend) + ‎-e → ‎amigue (friend)
    aluno (male student)/‎aluna (female student) + ‎-e → ‎alune (student)
    Synonym: -x

RomaniEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Forms the nominative plural of vocalic oikoclitic masculine nouns
    ćhavo (Romani boy) + ‎-e → ‎ćhave (Romani boys)
  2. Forms the nominative plural of vocalic oikoclitic adjectives
  3. Forms the oblique of oikoclitic adjectives
  4. Attaches to the perfective stem to form the third-person plural past tense.

Usage notesEdit

Few conservative dialects use -a to form the oblique feminine singular of oikoclitic adjectives.

RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin -ae (first-declension ending).

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. (plural) -s (feminine/neuter)
Usage notesEdit
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for feminine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases which end in , and some neuter nouns (with may or may not take plural -uri):
  • mame, from mamă, fem.
  • vise (also visuri), from vis, neut.
Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin -e (second-declension vocative ending).

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Vocative singular (masculine/neuter)
Oh!
Usage notesEdit
  • This suffixed used with masculine and neuter definite nouns in -l and -ul:
bărbatul (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎bărbatule!
tatăl (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎tatăle!
visul (neut.) + ‎-e → ‎visule!
  • This suffix is absorbed in masculine and neuter definite nouns in -le:
fratele (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎fratele!
numele (neut.) + ‎-e → ‎numele!
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin -ere, the ending of the present active infinitive form of third conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -er, Italian -ere, etc.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
ConjugationEdit
Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Saterland FrisianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Frisian -a, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōn. Cognates include West Frisian -e and German -en.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e (type 2 form -je)

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives.

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Horst Haider Munske, editor (2001), “Das Saterfriesische”, in Handbuch des Friesischen [Handbook of Frisian studies], Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, →ISBN, page 414

Serbo-CroatianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

SuffixEdit

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a neuter noun, usually denoting a young animal, plant, place name or is used as a collective noun.
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to the truncated stem (up to the second syllable) of a proper name to create a masculine or feminine hypocoristic.
    Katarína + ‎-e → ‎Káte
    Màrija + ‎-e → ‎Máre
    Jȕrāj + ‎-e → ‎Júre
    Màtija + ‎-e → ‎Máte

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Slavic *-e, from Proto-Indo-European *-e, not a desinence per se but a thematic vowel in e-grade.

SuffixEdit

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to the nominal stem to create vocative singular. Used for masculine and neuter a-stems.
    vȗk + ‎-e → ‎vȗče (vocative singular)

See alsoEdit

SpanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin -et, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of second conjugation verbs, and Latin -it, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of third and fourth conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. suffix indicating the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative of -er and -ir verbs

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin -em, the first-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs, and Latin -et, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. suffix indicating the first- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs

Etymology 3Edit

From Latin , Latin -e, and Latin , the second-person singular present active imperative endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. suffix indicating the second-person singular imperative form of -er and -ir verbs

Etymology 4Edit

Neologistic suffix between -a and -o.

SuffixEdit

-e m or f by sense (plural -es)

  1. (neologism) suffix used to form gender-neutral words
    hermano (brother)/‎hermana (sister) + ‎-e → ‎hermane (sibling)
    niño (boy)/‎niña (girl) + ‎-e → ‎niñe (child)
    amigo (male friend)/‎amiga (female friend) + ‎-e → ‎amigue (friend)
    abogado (male lawyer)/‎abogada (female lawyer) + ‎-e → ‎abogade (lawyer)
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

SwedishEdit

SuffixEdit

-e

  1. Conjugates verbs into the subjunctive mood (archaic except for the past subjunctive of vara: vore)
  2. Marker of definiteness on past participles ending in -ad
  3. Marker of plural on past participles ending in -ad
  4. Marker of definiteness on superlatives ending in -ast
  5. Marker of definiteness on adjectives describing nouns with masculine semantic gender (sex)
  6. Creates diminutives of given names and certain nouns, -ie, -y
    frukost (breakfast) + ‎-e → ‎frugge (brekkie)
    fisk (fish) + ‎-e → ‎firre (fishie)
    Jonatan (Jonathan) + ‎-e → ‎Jonte (nickname of Jonatan)
    Synonyms: -is, -a, -an

TurkishEdit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -a -e
postvocalic -ya -ye

EtymologyEdit

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *-ke.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-e (inflectional)

Form of -a after the vowels E / İ / Ö / Ü.

  1. to (puts the word into the dative case)

TzotzilEdit

CliticEdit

-e

  1. Phrase-final clitic used when an article precedes at least one word.
    ti vinikethe man

ReferencesEdit