Appendix:Tagalog numbers

Cardinal and ordinal numbers

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Tagalog used two sets of cardinal numerals, one based on Austronesian roots and another borrowed from Spanish. Native numerals are usually used in counting most objects, while numerals from Spanish are usually used in counting money (generally over 2 up to 99), and telling time and age.

Ordinals are generally formed with ika- or pang-; some exceptions being una, ikalawa, and ikatlo, which are inherited from early Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. Such even influence spellings of other ordinals, e.g. ikatlumpû (thirteenth).

# Cardinal Cardinal borrowed/derived from Spanish Ordinal
0 wala sero
1 isá uno una, ikaisa,
2 dalawá dos ikalawa, pangalawa
3 tatló tres ikatlo, pangatlo
4 apat kuwatro ikaapat, pang-apat
5 limá singko ikalima, panlima
6 anim seis ikaanim, pang-anim
7 pitó siyete ikapito, pampito
8 waló otso ikawalo, pangwalo
9 siyám nuwebe ikasiyam, pansiyam
10 sampû diyes ikasampu, pansampu
11 labíng-isá onse ikalabing-isa, panlabing-isa
12 labíndalawá dose ikálabíndalawá, panlabíndalawá
13 labíntatló trese ikálabíntatló, panlabíntatló
14 labíng-apat katorse ikalabing-apat, panlabing-apat
15 labínlimá kinse ikálabínlimá, panlabínlimá
16 labíng-anim disiseis ikálabíng-anim, panlabíng-anim
17 labímpitó disisiyete ikalabimpito, panlabimpito
18 labíngwaló disiotso ikálabíngwaló, panlabíngwaló
19 labínsiyám disinuwebe ikálabínsiyám, panlabínsiyám
20 dalawampû beynte ikalawampû, pangalawampû
21 dalawampu't isa beynte uno ikalampu't isa, pangalawampu't isa
21 dalawampu't dalawa beynte dos ikalawampu't dalawa, pangalawampu't dalawa
23 dalawampu't tatlo beynte tres ikalawampu't tatlo, pangalawampu't tatlo
24 dalawampu't apat beynte kuwatro ikalawampu't apat, pangalawampu't apat
25 dalawampu't lima beynte singko ikalawampu't lima, pangalawampu't lima
26 dalawampu't anim beynte seis ikalawampu't anim, pangalawampu't anim
26 dalawampu't pito beynte siyete ikalawampu't pito, pangalawampu't pito
28 dalawampu't walo beynte otso ikalawampu't walo, pangalawampu't walo
29 dalawampu't siyam beynte nuwebe ikalawampu't siyam, pangalawampu't siyam
30 tatlumpu treynta ikatlumpu, pangatlumpu
31 tatlumpu't isa treynta y uno ikatlumpu't isa, pangatlumpu't isa
32 tatlumpu't dalawa treynta y dos ikatlumpu't dalawa, pangatlumpu't dalawa
33 tatlumpu't tatlo treynta y tres ikatlumpu't tatlo, pangatlumpu't tatlo
34 tatlumpu't apat treynta y kuwatro ikatlumpu't apat, pangatlumpu't apat
35 tatlumpu't lima treynta y singko ikatlumpu't lima, pangatlumpu't lima
36 tatlumpu't anim treynta y seis ikatlumpu't anim, pangatlumpu't anim
37 tatlumpu't pito treynta y siyete ikatlumpu't pito, pangatlumpu't pito
38 tatlumpu't walo treynta y otso ikatlumpu't walo, pangatlumpu't walo
39 tatlumpu't siyam treynta y nuwebe ikatlumpu't siyam, pangatlumpu't siyam
40 apatnapu kuwarenta ikaapatnapu, pang-apatnapu
41-49 Like with 31-39
50 limampu singkuwenta ikalimampu, panlimampu
51-59 Like with 31-39
60 animnapu sesenta ikaanimnapu, pang-animnapu
61-69 Like with 31-39
70 pitumpu setenta ikapitumpu, pampitumpu
71-79 Like with 31-39
80 walumpu otsenta ikawalumpu, panwalumpu
81-89 Like with 31-39
90 siyamnapu nobenta ikasiyamnapu, pansiyamnapu
91-99 Like with 31-39
100 sandaan, daan siyento ikasandaan, pansandaan
101-199 sandaan at isasandaan at siyamnapu't-siyam siyento y unosiyentos nobenta y nuwebe
200 dalawandaan dosyentos ikalawang-daan, pangalawang-daan
300 tatlundaan tresyentos ikatlong-daan, pangatlong-daan
400 apatnaraan kuwatrosiyentos ikaapat na raan, pang-apat na raan
500 limandaan kinyentos ikalimang-daan, panglimang-daan
600 animnaraan seissiyentos ikaanimnaraan, pang-anim na raan
700 pitundaan setesiyentos ikapitong-daan, pampitong-daan
800 walundaan otsosiyentos ikawalong-daan, panwalong-daan
900 siyamnaraan nobesiyentos ikasiyam na raan, pansiyam na raan
1,000 libo, isang libo mil ikasanlibo
2,000 dalawang libo dos mil ikalawang-libo
3,000 tatlong libo tres mil ikatlong-libo
4,000 apat na libo kuwatro mil ikaapat-na-libo
5,000 limang libo singko mil ikalimang-libo
6,000 anim na libo seis mil ikaanim-na-libo
7,000 pitong libo siyete mil ikapitong-libo
8,000 walong libo otso mil ikawalong-libo
9,000 siyam na libo nuwebe mil ikasiyam-na-libo
10,000 sampung libo, laksa, sanlaksa diyes mil ikaanim na libo
100,000 daanlibo, yuta, sangyuta siyento mil ikasandaang libo
1,000,000 milyon, isang milyon, angaw, sang-angaw ikaisang milyon
10,000,000 sampung milyon, kati, sangkati diyes milyones ikasampung milyon
100,000,000 sandaang milyon, sambahala, sampung kati siyentos milyones ikasandaang milyon
1,000,000,000 bilyon, isang bilyon, atos, isang atos mil milyones (archaic) milyardo (archaic) ikaisang bilyon
1,000,000,000,000 trilyon, isang trilyon, ipaw, isang ipaw bilyón (archaic) ikaisang trilyon

Cardinal numbers are followed by the enclitics na, -ng or -g depending on the word ending.

  • anim na beses (six times)
  • tatlong sako ng bigas (three sacks of rice)
  • limang milyong piso (five million pesos)

Numerals in Tagalog text are generally written using English conventions: commas for separating thousands, and periods for decimals.

Fractions

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Decimals

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  • 0.5 (five tenths) - salapi, lima hinati sa sampu
  • 0.001 (one thousandth) - isa hinati sa isa
  • 1.25 (one point twenty-five) - isa't dalawampu't-limang hinati sa sandaan or uno punto beynte-singko

Percentages

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Percentages can be said using either Spanish-derived or native numerals, along with porsiyento or bahagdan (the former term being more common).

Dates and times

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Date and time can be expressed in Tagalog using native or Spanish-derived numerals, but Spanish-derived numerals are more commonly used.

Times are usually written in 12-hour format, with ng umaga (abbr. n.u.), ng hapon (abbr. n.h.), and ng gabi (abbr. n.g.) appended. Ng tanghali (abbr. n.t.) and ng hatinggabi are always used with times from 12:01 to 12:59; 12:00 may be just denoted as tanghali or hatinggabi. Ng madaling-araw may be used in place of ng umaga with times from 12:00 to 5:59 AM. Clock times may be spoken with Spanish numerals or native ordinals, the former being more common.

Half hours are expressed using kalahati makalipas ng or y medya, e.g. alas-dos y medya or kalahati makalipas ng alas-dos (2:30, half past two). Time before a certain hour may be expressed using bago mag-, or para, and menos (optionally, if a Spanish numeral is used for the time before the hour) e.g. (menos) kinse para ala-una or labinlima bago mag-ala-una (12:45, a quarter to one).

Dates are usually in day-month-year format and can be said using either native or Spanish-derived numerals (the latter being most preferred).

  • 1 Enero 1985
    • using Spanish-derived numerals: Primero ng Enero, anyo mil nobesiyentos otsenta y singko
    • using native numerals: Ikaisa ng Enero, taong isang libo siyam na raan walumpu't lima.
  • 9 Abril 2010
    • using Spanish-derived numerals: A-nuwebe/Nobeno ng Abril, anyo dos mil diyes
    • using native numerals: Ikasiyam ng Abril, taong dalawanlibo't sampu.

Sometimes, month-day-year is used.

  • Enero 1, 1985
    • using Spanish-derived numerals: Enero a-uno/primero, anyo mil nobesiyentos otsenta y singko
    • using native numerals: Enero ikaisa, taong isang libo siyam na raan walumpu't lima.
  • Abril 9, 2010
    • using Spanish-derived numerals: Abril a-nuwebe/nobeno, anyo dos mil diyes
    • using native numerals: Abril ikasiyam, taong dalawanlibo't sampu.

Names of centuries and decades usually use ordinals (e.g. ikalawampung siglo). Names of decades between around the 1910s to the 1990s, however, generally are borrowed from Spanish (e.g. dekada sesenta, dekada nobenta).

Time reckoning generally use native numerals, for example:

  • dalawang dekada - two decades
  • tatlong taon - three years
  • apat na oras - four hours
  • limang minuto - five minutes
  • tatlumpung segundo - thirty seconds

There are two ways of reckoning age (edad, gulang, tanda) in Tagalog:

  • using native numerals: isang taon, dalawang taon, tatlong taon
  • using Spanish-derived numerals: uno anyos, dos anyos, tres anyos