Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/g/s-ni-s

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-TibetanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *g/s-ni-s (Matisoff, STEDT); *g-nis (Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987); *g-ni-s (Weidert, 1987)

Alongside the root for "three" (*g-sum), this root for "two" is one of the most lexemically and phonologically stable numerals in Sino-Tibetan languages, and lexical replacement of this etymon is excessively rare: e.g. Jingpho /ləkhôŋ/ which has not been successfully connected to anything else. The Jingpho word for "one" has a similar shape, /ləŋâi/, and is also etymologically unclear.

This root appears unmistakably cognate with *s-ni-s (seven). See there for more.

The Burmese form seems to suggest a proto-language velar final variant: *-ik.

NumeralEdit

*g/s-ni-s

  1. two

DescendantsEdit

  • Old Chinese: /*nij-s/
    • Middle Chinese: (ȵiɪH)

         Japanese:   (, ​ni)
            Korean:   (, i)
            Vietnamese:  nhị ()

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (èr, /ˀɤɻ⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /jiː²²/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: (ȵi²³) (colloquial) /ɦəɻ²³/ (literary)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གཉིས (gnyis, two)
          • Sikkimese: ཉི (nyi)
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • Northern Tangut
      • Tangut: 𗍫 (njɨ, /*nʲʏ⁵⁵/, two)
    • rGyalrongic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (nyip, two)
  • Karen: *k-hnejᴬ (Luangthongkum, 2013)
    • S'gaw Karen: ခံ (khi, two)

See alsoEdit