Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/g-sum

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-TibetanEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *g-sum (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *g-sum (Matisoff, STEDT; Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987)

This is perhaps the most stable numeral in Proto-Sino-Tibetan, with virtually no daughter language failing to show some reflex of this root. This stability can be attributed to various factors: the stability of the consonants "s" and "m", and the saliency of the numeral THREE itself. The velar prefix g/k- is the only prefix reconstructable for this root (another manifestation of well-preservedness); this is of course disregarding other prefixes in modern languages which resulted from an innovative prefix run in all of the lower numerals, for example Jingpho (m- in 3-5).

Some languages also show /a/ vocalism (e.g. Chinese), which some dismiss (somewhat unconvincingly) as secondary development. It is very likely that ablaut of *u ~ *a existed in the proto-language, i.e. *g-sum ⪤ *g-sam, analogous to *b-suŋ ~ b-saŋ (fragrance) (Matisoff, 1997).


NumeralEdit

*g-sum

  1. three

DescendantsEdit

  • Old Chinese: /*srum/ ("three"), /*s.rəm-s/ ("thrice")
    Note: The initial *sr- in Old Chinese irregularly developed into Middle Chinese *s- (not the expected *ʃ-), possibly due to influence by the next numeral (*s.l- > s-) (⇒ *b-ləj), FOUR.
    • Middle Chinese: (sɑm, sɑmH)

         Japanese:   (さん, ​san)
            Korean:   (, sam)
            Vietnamese:  tam ()

    •    Proto-Tai:  *saːm (three) (whence Thai สาม (sǎam), Lao ສາມ (sām))

      • Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("three") (sān, /san⁵⁵/)
        • Chengdu: /san⁵⁵/
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /säːm⁵⁵/
        • Taishan: /ɬam³³/
      • Hakka
        • Sixian: /sam²⁴/
        • Meixian: /sam⁴⁴/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /se̞⁵³/
    • Min
      • Min Bei
        Jian'ou: /saŋ⁵⁴/
      • Min Dong
        Fuzhou: /saŋ⁵⁵/
      • Min Nan
        Hokkien:
        Quanzhou: /sã³³/ (colloquial), /sam³³/ (literary)
        Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Kaohsiung, Taipei: /sã⁴⁴/ (colloquial), /sam⁴⁴/ (literary)
        Teochew: /sã³³/ (colloquial), /sam³³/ (literary)
  • Kamarupan
    • "North Assam"
      • Tani
        /*ɦum/ ("three") (Sun, 1993)
    • Kuki-Chin
      /*thum/ ("three") (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: thum (three)
    • "Naga"
      • Northern Naga/Konyak
        *C̬-sum (three) (French, 1983)
      • Tangkhulic
        /*tʰum/ ("three") (Mortensen, 2012)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གསུམ (gsum, three)
            • Modern Tibetan (Lhasa): /sum˥˥/
      • Lepcha: ᰠᰦᰮ (sám, three)
      • Tamangic/West Bodish
        *ᴮsom (three) (Mazaudon, 1994)
    • Newar
      • Newar (Dolakhali): सों (, three)
      • Newar (Kathmandu): सो (swɔ, three)
    • Mahakiranti
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • Northern Tangut
      • Tangut: 𘕕 (sọ, /*so⁵⁵/, three)
    • rGyalrongic
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: masum (three)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish: *C-sum² (three) (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (suo, three)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Southern): ꓢꓺ (sa, three) (ꓢꓽ () / ꓢꓼ (sà) before most mid tone classifiers)
  • Karen: *səmᴬ (three) (Luangthongkum, 2013)
    • S'gaw Karen: သၢ (, three)
  • Baic
    • Bai: sanl (three)