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From aestus (undulating, waving; heat) +‎ .



aestuō (present infinitive aestuāre, perfect active aestuāvī, supine aestuātum); first conjugation

  1. I am in agitation or violent commotion, move to and fro, writhe, rage, toss, boil up, heave.
    • c. 99 BCE – 55 BCE, Lucretius, De rerum natura 5.1097:
      et ramosa tamen cum ventis pulsa vacillans / aestuat in ramos incumbens arboris arbor
      Yet also when a many-branched tree, / beaten by winds, writhes swaying to and fro, pressing 'gainst branches of a neighbour tree
  2. (of fire) I burn, blaze, rage.
    • c. 37 BCE – 30 BCE, Virgil, Georgicon 4.263:
      [] aestuat ut clausis rapidus fornacibus ignis
      [] as the rapacious fire blazes in a sealed furnace
  3. (of the effect of fire) I am warm or hot, swelter, glow, burn.
    • c. 37 BCE – 30 BCE, Virgil, Georgicon 1.107:
      [] et cum exustus ager morientibus aestuat herbis / ecce []
      [] and see, when the scorched land burns with the grasses withering []
  4. (of water) I rise in waves or billows, surge, whirl, seethe.
    • 23 BCE – 13 BCE, Horace, Odes 2.6.4:
      [] ubi Maura semper / aestuat unda
      [] and Moorish wave / that whirls the sand.
  5. (figuratively, of emotions) I burn with desire, am agitated or excited, am inflamed, fret.
    • 70 BCE, Cicero, In Verrem 2.2.55:
      quod ubi auditum est aestuare illi qui pecuniam dederant
      And when this was known, they began to fret who had paid the money.
  6. (figuratively, of emotions) I vacillate, hesitate, am in doubt or undecided.
    • c. 95 CE, Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria 10.7.33:
      sic anceps inter utrumque animus aestuat []
      Consequently, the mind will waver in doubt between the two alternatives []


   Conjugation of aestuo (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present aestuō aestuās aestuat aestuāmus aestuātis aestuant
imperfect aestuābam aestuābās aestuābat aestuābāmus aestuābātis aestuābant
future aestuābō aestuābis aestuābit aestuābimus aestuābitis aestuābunt
perfect aestuāvī aestuāvistī aestuāvit aestuāvimus aestuāvistis aestuāvērunt, aestuāvēre
pluperfect aestuāveram aestuāverās aestuāverat aestuāverāmus aestuāverātis aestuāverant
future perfect aestuāverō aestuāveris aestuāverit aestuāverimus aestuāveritis aestuāverint
passive present aestuor aestuāris, aestuāre aestuātur aestuāmur aestuāminī aestuantur
imperfect aestuābar aestuābāris, aestuābāre aestuābātur aestuābāmur aestuābāminī aestuābantur
future aestuābor aestuāberis, aestuābere aestuābitur aestuābimur aestuābiminī aestuābuntur
perfect aestuātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect aestuātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect aestuātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present aestuem aestuēs aestuet aestuēmus aestuētis aestuent
imperfect aestuārem aestuārēs aestuāret aestuārēmus aestuārētis aestuārent
perfect aestuāverim aestuāverīs aestuāverit aestuāverīmus aestuāverītis aestuāverint
pluperfect aestuāvissem aestuāvissēs aestuāvisset aestuāvissēmus aestuāvissētis aestuāvissent
passive present aestuer aestuēris, aestuēre aestuētur aestuēmur aestuēminī aestuentur
imperfect aestuārer aestuārēris, aestuārēre aestuārētur aestuārēmur aestuārēminī aestuārentur
perfect aestuātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect aestuātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present aestuā aestuāte
future aestuātō aestuātō aestuātōte aestuantō
passive present aestuāre aestuāminī
future aestuātor aestuātor aestuantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives aestuāre aestuāvisse aestuātūrus esse aestuārī aestuātus esse aestuātum īrī
participles aestuāns aestuātūrus aestuātus aestuandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
aestuāre aestuandī aestuandō aestuandum aestuātum aestuātū

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit