From ciets ‎(hard, solid) +‎ -ums.


cietums m (1st declension)

  1. prison (government institution where people are kept before trial, or while serving their sentences after trial)
    ieslodzīt cietumā — to lock (someone) up in prison
    cietuma kameraprison cell
  2. (figuratively) prison (place where freedom of movement is limited, where living conditions are difficult)
    cariskā Krievija ir tautu cietums — czarist Russia is the prison of peoples, nations
  3. (chiefly in the singular) hardness, solidity, thickness (the quality of that which is hard, solid)
    vielas cietums — the hardness of a substance
    fizikāla ķermeņa cietums — the hardness of a physical body
    granīta cietums — the hardness of granite
    matu īpašības, piemēram, to cietums un rupjums, zināmā mērā ir atkarīgas no iedzimtības — hair properties, for instance, its thickness and roughness, are to a certain extent dependent on heredity
  4. hard spot, lump (in the human body)
    cietums delnā — a hard spot, lump on the palm of the hand
    zemādas cietumi — subcutaneous lumps, hard spots
  5. (chiefly singular; of water) hardness (the quality of containing salts of calcium or magnesium)
    samazināt ūdens cietumu — to reduce the hardness of the water


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