English edit

 
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Etymology edit

From Latin gladius (Roman short sword, gladius). Doublet of glaive.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gladius (plural gladiuses or gladii)

  1. (historical) A Roman sword roughly two feet long.
    • 1882, “The Genesis of the Sword”, in Popular Science Monthly, volume 21, page 81:
      Finally, the Romans made the gladius—sharp, of highly-tempered steel, and strongly piercing—the first real sword (Figs. 17, 18, 19), of which only five specimens are now known to exist.
    • 2007, Pat Southern, The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History, page 212:
      The gladius was effective either for cutting or for thrusting and was used by legionaries and auxiliaries.
  2. (zoology) A pen, a hard internal bodypart of certain cephalopods, made of chitin-like material.
    • 2017 October 31, Mark Carnall, The Guardian[1]:
      From the Cretaceous of North America fossilised gladii in the enigmatic genus Tusoteuthis have been estimated to give a mantle length (body size) of 1.8m, just less than that of the giant squid’s.

Translations edit

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

 
Gladius.

From Latin gladius (Roman short sword, gladius).

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Noun edit

gladius m (plural gladii, diminutive gladiusje n)

  1. Roman short sword; gladius
    Hypernym: kortzwaard

Usage notes edit

Like many Dutch words borrowed from Latin, the plural takes the form of the Latin nominative plural.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

< Latin

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡlɑdius/, [ˈɡlɑ̝dius̠]
  • Rhymes: -ɑdius
  • Syllabification(key): gla‧di‧us

Noun edit

gladius

  1. gladius (Roman sword)
    Hypernym: miekka

Declension edit

Inflection of gladius (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative gladius gladiukset
genitive gladiuksen gladiusten
gladiuksien
partitive gladiusta gladiuksia
illative gladiukseen gladiuksiin
singular plural
nominative gladius gladiukset
accusative nom. gladius gladiukset
gen. gladiuksen
genitive gladiuksen gladiusten
gladiuksien
partitive gladiusta gladiuksia
inessive gladiuksessa gladiuksissa
elative gladiuksesta gladiuksista
illative gladiukseen gladiuksiin
adessive gladiuksella gladiuksilla
ablative gladiukselta gladiuksilta
allative gladiukselle gladiuksille
essive gladiuksena gladiuksina
translative gladiukseksi gladiuksiksi
abessive gladiuksetta gladiuksitta
instructive gladiuksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of gladius (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative gladiukseni gladiukseni
accusative nom. gladiukseni gladiukseni
gen. gladiukseni
genitive gladiukseni gladiusteni
gladiuksieni
partitive gladiustani gladiuksiani
inessive gladiuksessani gladiuksissani
elative gladiuksestani gladiuksistani
illative gladiukseeni gladiuksiini
adessive gladiuksellani gladiuksillani
ablative gladiukseltani gladiuksiltani
allative gladiukselleni gladiuksilleni
essive gladiuksenani gladiuksinani
translative gladiuksekseni gladiuksikseni
abessive gladiuksettani gladiuksittani
instructive
comitative gladiuksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative gladiuksesi gladiuksesi
accusative nom. gladiuksesi gladiuksesi
gen. gladiuksesi
genitive gladiuksesi gladiustesi
gladiuksiesi
partitive gladiustasi gladiuksiasi
inessive gladiuksessasi gladiuksissasi
elative gladiuksestasi gladiuksistasi
illative gladiukseesi gladiuksiisi
adessive gladiuksellasi gladiuksillasi
ablative gladiukseltasi gladiuksiltasi
allative gladiuksellesi gladiuksillesi
essive gladiuksenasi gladiuksinasi
translative gladiukseksesi gladiuksiksesi
abessive gladiuksettasi gladiuksittasi
instructive
comitative gladiuksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative gladiuksemme gladiuksemme
accusative nom. gladiuksemme gladiuksemme
gen. gladiuksemme
genitive gladiuksemme gladiustemme
gladiuksiemme
partitive gladiustamme gladiuksiamme
inessive gladiuksessamme gladiuksissamme
elative gladiuksestamme gladiuksistamme
illative gladiukseemme gladiuksiimme
adessive gladiuksellamme gladiuksillamme
ablative gladiukseltamme gladiuksiltamme
allative gladiuksellemme gladiuksillemme
essive gladiuksenamme gladiuksinamme
translative gladiukseksemme gladiuksiksemme
abessive gladiuksettamme gladiuksittamme
instructive
comitative gladiuksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative gladiuksenne gladiuksenne
accusative nom. gladiuksenne gladiuksenne
gen. gladiuksenne
genitive gladiuksenne gladiustenne
gladiuksienne
partitive gladiustanne gladiuksianne
inessive gladiuksessanne gladiuksissanne
elative gladiuksestanne gladiuksistanne
illative gladiukseenne gladiuksiinne
adessive gladiuksellanne gladiuksillanne
ablative gladiukseltanne gladiuksiltanne
allative gladiuksellenne gladiuksillenne
essive gladiuksenanne gladiuksinanne
translative gladiukseksenne gladiuksiksenne
abessive gladiuksettanne gladiuksittanne
instructive
comitative gladiuksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative gladiuksensa gladiuksensa
accusative nom. gladiuksensa gladiuksensa
gen. gladiuksensa
genitive gladiuksensa gladiustensa
gladiuksiensa
partitive gladiustaan
gladiustansa
gladiuksiaan
gladiuksiansa
inessive gladiuksessaan
gladiuksessansa
gladiuksissaan
gladiuksissansa
elative gladiuksestaan
gladiuksestansa
gladiuksistaan
gladiuksistansa
illative gladiukseensa gladiuksiinsa
adessive gladiuksellaan
gladiuksellansa
gladiuksillaan
gladiuksillansa
ablative gladiukseltaan
gladiukseltansa
gladiuksiltaan
gladiuksiltansa
allative gladiukselleen
gladiuksellensa
gladiuksilleen
gladiuksillensa
essive gladiuksenaan
gladiuksenansa
gladiuksinaan
gladiuksinansa
translative gladiuksekseen
gladiukseksensa
gladiuksikseen
gladiuksiksensa
abessive gladiuksettaan
gladiuksettansa
gladiuksittaan
gladiuksittansa
instructive
comitative gladiuksineen
gladiuksinensa

Related terms edit

Latin edit

 
gladius

Etymology edit

Possibly from Gaulish *kladyos (sword), from Proto-Celtic *kladiwos (sword) (compare Old Irish claideb (sword), Welsh cleddyf (sword) from Proto-Indo-European *kelh₂- (to beat, break)).[1] Cognate with Latin clādes, clāva, percellō.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

gladius m (genitive gladiī or gladī); second declension

  1. sword
    Synonyms: ēnsis, mūcrō, spatha
    Mitte gladium in vaginam.Put the sword into its sheath.
    in gladium incumbereto fall on one's sword
  2. (figuratively) murder, death
    Synonym: mors
  3. a gladiatorial contest
  4. swordfish
    Synonym: xiphiās
  5. (slang) penis

Declension edit

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative gladius gladiī
Genitive gladiī
gladī1
gladiōrum
Dative gladiō gladiīs
Accusative gladium gladiōs
Ablative gladiō gladiīs
Vocative gladie gladiī

1Found in older Latin (until the Augustan Age).

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Gallo-Italic:
    • Old Ligurian: iao (sword)
    • Old Lombard: giaio
    • Piedmontese: sgiái (horror)
  • Gallo-Romance:
    • Old Catalan: glay, glai (sword, fright)
      • Catalan: esglai (fright)
    • Old Franco-Provençal: glaio
    • Old French: glai, glay (sword, lance, sword-lily)
      • French: glai (sword-lily) (regional)
    • Old Occitan: glai (horror, ice), glazi (sword, carnage) (probably from gladī NOM.PL)
  • Italo-Romance:
    • Italian: ghiado (sword, cold)
    • Neapolitan: jajo (disgust, shiver)
  • Borrowings:

References edit

  • gladius”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • gladius”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • gladius in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • gladius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a sword hangs over his neck: gladius cervicibus impendet
    • to use javelins at a distance, swords at close quarters: eminus hastis, comminus gladiis uti
    • to draw one's sword (from the scabbard): gladium educere (e vagīna)
    • to sheath one's sword: gladium in vaginam recondere
    • to draw one's sword: gladium stringere, destringere
    • to plunge one's sword in some one's breast: gladium alicui in pectus infigere
    • to transfix, pierce a man's breast with one's sword: gladio aliquem per pectus transfigere (Liv. 2. 46)
    • to fight with swords at close quarters: gladio comminus (opp. eminus) rem gerere
    • to throw down the javelins (pila) and fight with the sword: omissis pilis gladiis rem gerere
    • swords must now decide the day: res ad gladios vēnit
    • swords must now decide the day: res gladiis geri coepta est
    • to throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword: strictis gladiis in hostem ferri
  • gladius”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898), Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • gladius”, in William Smith et al., editor (1890), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  • Walther von Wartburg (1928–2002) “gladius”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 4: G H I, page 144
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 263