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EnglishEdit

 
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PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English penne (enclosure for animals), from Old English penn (enclosure, fold, pen) (in compounds), from Proto-Germanic *pennō, *pannijō (pin, bolt, nail, tack), from Proto-Indo-European *bend- (pointed peg, nail, edge). Akin to Old English pennian (to close, lock, bolt) (in compounds onpennian (to open)), Low German pennen (to secure a door with a bolt), Old English pinn (peg, bolt). More at pin.

Sense “prison” originally figurative extension to “enclosure for persons” (1845), later influenced by penitentiary (prison), being analyzed as an abbreviation (1884).[1]

NounEdit

pen (plural pens)

  1. An enclosed area used to contain domesticated animals, especially sheep or cattle.
    There are two steers in the third pen.
  2. A place to confine a person; a prison cell, though likelier an abbreviation of penitentiary.
    They caught him with a stolen horse, and he wound up in the pen again.
  3. (baseball) The bullpen.
    Two righties are up in the pen.
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned or pent)

  1. (transitive) To enclose in a pen.
    • Milton
      Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

 
A ballpoint pen, showing assembly.

From Anglo-Norman penne, from Old French penne, from Latin penna (feather), from Proto-Indo-European *petna-, from *pet- (to rush, fly) (from which petition). Proto-Indo-European base also root of *petra-, from which πτερόν (pterón, wing) (whence pterodactyl), Sanskrit पत्रम् (patram, wing, feather), Old Church Slavonic перо (pero, pen), Old Norse fjǫðr, Old English feðer (Modern English feather);[1] note the /p/ → /f/ Germanic sound change.

See feather and πέτομαι (pétomai) for more.

NounEdit

pen (plural pens)

  1. A tool, originally made from a feather but now usually a small tubular instrument, containing ink used to write or make marks.
    He took notes with a pen.
  2. (figuratively) A writer, or his style.
    He has a sharp pen.
    • Fuller
      those learned pens
  3. (colloquial) Marks of ink left by a pen.
    He's unhappy because he got pen on his new shirt.
  4. A light pen.
  5. (zoology) The internal cartilage skeleton of a squid, shaped like a pen.
  6. (now rare, poetic, dialectal) A feather, especially one of the flight feathers of a bird, angel etc.
    • 1590, Edmund Spendser, The Faerie Queene, I.xi:
      And eke the pennes, that did his pineons bynd, / Were like mayne-yards, with flying canuas lynd, / With which whenas him list the ayre to beat []
  7. (poetic) A wing.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Milton to this entry?)
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned)

  1. (transitive) To write (an article, a book, etc.).
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Origin uncertain.

NounEdit

pen (plural pens)

  1. A female swan.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Shortened form of penalty

NounEdit

pen (plural pens)

  1. penalty

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 pen” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2017.

AnagramsEdit


DanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From late Old Norse penni, from Latin penna (feather).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /pɛnˀ/, [pʰɛnˀ]

NounEdit

pen c (singular definite pennen, plural indefinite penne)

  1. pen
  2. quill
  3. pane, peen
DeclensionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

AdjectiveEdit

pen (neuter pent, plural and definite singular attributive pene, comparative penere, superlative (predicative) penest, superlative (attributive) peneste)

  1. Obsolete spelling of pæn

DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pen f (plural pennen, diminutive pennetje n)

  1. a pen (writing utensil)
  2. a pin

Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit


JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

pen

  1. Rōmaji transcription of ペン

LojbanEdit

RafsiEdit

pen

  1. rafsi of penmi.

MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

pen

  1. Nonstandard spelling of pēn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of pén.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of pěn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of pèn.

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

MapudungunEdit

VerbEdit

pen (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. to see

SynonymsEdit


MindiriEdit

NounEdit

pen

  1. woman

Further readingEdit

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from French

AdjectiveEdit

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penere, indefinite superlative penest, definite superlative peneste)

  1. nice
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking
    pent vær - nice weather

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from French

AdjectiveEdit

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penare, indefinite superlative penast, definite superlative penaste)

  1. nice
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking
    pent vêr - nice weather

ReferencesEdit


RadeEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from French pince.

NounEdit

pen

  1. pincers

Tok PisinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From English paint.

NounEdit

pen

  1. paint

Etymology 2Edit

From English pen.

NounEdit

pen

  1. pen

Etymology 3Edit

From English pain.

NounEdit

pen

  1. pain
    • 1989, Buk Baibel long Tok Pisin, Bible Society of Papua New Guinea, Genesis 3:16 (translation here):
      Na God i tokim meri olsem, “Bai mi givim yu bikpela hevi long taim yu gat bel. Na bai yu gat bikpela pen long taim yu karim pikinini. Tasol bai yu gat bikpela laik yet long man bilong yu, na bai em i bosim yu.”
This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Tok Pisin is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

VolapükEdit

NounEdit

pen (plural pens)

  1. pen

DeclensionEdit


WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Welsh penn, from Proto-Brythonic *penn, from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pen m (plural pennau)

  1. head
  2. chief
  3. top, apex
  4. end, extremity

Related termsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

pen (equative penned, comparative pennach, superlative pennaf)

  1. head
  2. chief
  3. supreme, principal

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
pen ben mhen phen
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

ReferencesEdit

  • pen”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, 2014