Latin edit

Etymology edit

From older Latin iuvere (> iuvāre), apparently a simple thematic verb, to which iuvāre may originally be an iterative.

Maybe cognate with Hittite iyauwatta (to be healed, recover) (middle voice, meaning developed from "to help oneself"), in which case it is reconstructable as Proto-Indo-European *h₁i-h₁éwH-ti (to help), from root Proto-Indo-European *h₁ewH-.[1][2]

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

iuvō (present infinitive iuvāre, perfect active iūvī, supine iūtum); first conjugation

  1. to help, aid; save
    Synonyms: adiūtō, adiuvō, foveō, assistō, succurrō, sublevō, prōficiō, prōsum, adsum
    Antonym: officiō
    audaces fortuna iuvatFortune favours the brave (Virgil, Aeneid)
  2. to delight, gratify, please
    Synonyms: dēlectō, fruor, congrātulor, exhilarō

Conjugation edit

   Conjugation of iuvō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iuvō iuvās iuvat iuvāmus iuvātis iuvant
imperfect iuvābam iuvābās iuvābat iuvābāmus iuvābātis iuvābant
future iuvābō iuvābis iuvābit iuvābimus iuvābitis iuvābunt
perfect iūvī iūvistī iūvit iūvimus iūvistis iūvērunt,
pluperfect iūveram iūverās iūverat iūverāmus iūverātis iūverant
future perfect iūverō iūveris iūverit iūverimus iūveritis iūverint
passive present iuvor iuvāris,
iuvātur iuvāmur iuvāminī iuvantur
imperfect iuvābar iuvābāris,
iuvābātur iuvābāmur iuvābāminī iuvābantur
future iuvābor iuvāberis,
iuvābitur iuvābimur iuvābiminī iuvābuntur
perfect iūtus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect iūtus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect iūtus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iuvem iuvēs iuvet iuvēmus iuvētis iuvent
imperfect iuvārem iuvārēs iuvāret iuvārēmus iuvārētis iuvārent
perfect iūverim iūverīs iūverit iūverīmus iūverītis iūverint
pluperfect iūvissem iūvissēs iūvisset iūvissēmus iūvissētis iūvissent
passive present iuver iuvēris,
iuvētur iuvēmur iuvēminī iuventur
imperfect iuvārer iuvārēris,
iuvārētur iuvārēmur iuvārēminī iuvārentur
perfect iūtus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect iūtus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present iuvā iuvāte
future iuvātō iuvātō iuvātōte iuvantō
passive present iuvāre iuvāminī
future iuvātor iuvātor iuvantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives iuvāre iūvisse iūtūrum esse iuvārī iūtum esse iūtum īrī
participles iuvāns iūtūrus iūtus iuvandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
iuvandī iuvandō iuvandum iuvandō iūtum iūtū

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Friulian: zovâ
  • Italian: giovare
  • Old French: juva (only in the 8th c. phrase tu lo juva 'bless him')
  • Sardinian: juare, zuare, zubare
  • Sicilian: juvari, giuvari
  • Venetian: xiovar

References edit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “iuvō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 243-44

Further reading edit

  • juvo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • iuvo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • iuvo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to give a person the advantage of one's advice (and actual support): aliquem consilio (et re) iuvare
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN