From Proto-Italic *oitōr (with ūsus for *issus after ūtor), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *h₃eyt- (to take along, fetch). Compare the future tense οἴσω (oísō) of Ancient Greek φέρω (phérō, carry).



ūtor (present infinitive ūtī, perfect active ūsus sum); third conjugation, deponent

  1. I use, employ.
    • Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, when Hannibal failed to invade Rome after his victory at Cannae.
      Vincere scīs, Hannibal, victōriā ūtī nescīs.
      You know how to obtain victory, Hannibal, but you do not know how to use it.
  2. I enjoy, take advantage of.
  3. I experience, undergo, encounter.
  4. I wear.
  5. I consume.

Usage notesEdit

  1. The verb ūtor and others like it, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their compounds, regularly govern the ablative case.
    For example: Mīles gladiō ūtitur. The soldier uses a sword.
    Quo expeditiore re frumentaria utereturin order that he might make use of the looser supplies of provisions
    (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 11)
  2. Later regularized as uso.


   Conjugation of ūtor (third conjugation, deponent)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ūtor ūteris, ūtere ūtitur ūtimur ūtiminī ūtuntur
imperfect ūtēbar ūtēbāris, ūtēbāre ūtēbātur ūtēbāmur ūtēbāminī ūtēbantur
future ūtar ūtēris, ūtēre ūtētur ūtēmur ūtēminī ūtentur
perfect ūsus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ūsus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ūsus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ūtar ūtāris, ūtāre ūtātur ūtāmur ūtāminī ūtantur
imperfect ūterer ūterēris, ūterēre ūterētur ūterēmur ūterēminī ūterentur
perfect ūsus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ūsus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ūtere ūtiminī
future ūtitor ūtitor ūtuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives ūtī ūsum esse ūsūrum esse
participles ūtēns ūsus ūsūrus ūtendus, ūtundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
ūtendī ūtendō ūtendum ūtendō ūsum ūsū

Derived termsEdit


  • utor in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • utor in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • utor in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (a state) has its own laws, is autonomous: suis legibus utitur (B. G. 1. 45. 3)
    • to use Cicero's expression; to say with Cicero (not ut cum Cicerone loquar): ut Ciceronis verbis utar
    • to use the mildest expression: ut levissime dicam (opp. ut gravissimo verbo utar)
    • to use this example: ut hoc utar or afferam
    • (ambiguous) to have favourable, contrary, winds: ventis secundis, adversis uti
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy good health: bona (firma, prospera) valetudine esse or uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to be ill, weakly: infirma, aegra valetudine esse or uti
    • (ambiguous) to excuse oneself on the score of health: valetudinis excusatione uti
    • (ambiguous) to find one's circumstances altered for the better (the worse): meliore (deteriore) condicione esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) to make use of, avail oneself of an opportunity: occasione uti
    • (ambiguous) to be fortunate, lucky: fortuna secunda uti
    • (ambiguous) to be favoured by Fortune; to bask in Fortune's smiles: fortunae favore or prospero flatu fortunae uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to experience the vicissitudes of fortune; to have a chequered career: varia fortuna uti
    • (ambiguous) to solace oneself with the thought..: hoc solacio frui, uti
    • (ambiguous) to be friendly with any one: uti aliquo amico
    • (ambiguous) to be on very intimate terms with..: uti aliquo familiariter
    • (ambiguous) to act in accordance with one's convictions: suo iudicio uti
    • (ambiguous) to adopt half-measures: mediocribus consiliis uti
    • (ambiguous) to go one's own way, proceed independently: suo consilio uti
    • (ambiguous) to receive instruction from some one: disciplina alicuius uti, magistro aliquo uti
    • (ambiguous) to quote an example: exemplo uti
    • (ambiguous) to have as authority for a thing: auctore aliquo uti ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to make a joke: ioco uti (Off. 1. 29. 103)
    • (ambiguous) to make witty remarks: facetiis uti, facetum esse
    • (ambiguous) to employ carefully chosen expressions: lectissimis verbis uti (De Or. 3. 37)
    • (ambiguous) to employ a comparison, simile: simili uti
    • (ambiguous) to possess presence of mind: praesenti animo uti (vid. sect. VI. 8, note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to behave with cruelty: crudelitate uti (vid. sect. VI. 8, note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to use threats: minis uti
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with reason: ratione praeditum esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) to behave with moderation: temperantia uti
    • (ambiguous) to have no principles: omnia temere agere, nullo iudicio uti
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy a person's hospitality: hospitio alicuius uti
    • (ambiguous) to be on intimate terms with some one: uti aliquo (familiariter)
    • (ambiguous) to be on intimate terms with some one: alicuius familiaritate uti
    • (ambiguous) to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • (ambiguous) to use some one's evidence: aliquo teste uti
    • (ambiguous) to use javelins at a distance, swords at close quarters: eminus hastis, comminus gladiis uti
    • (ambiguous) to fight successfully: proeliis secundis uti
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN