καλός

Ancient GreekEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From earlier καλϝός (kalwós), from Proto-Indo-European *kal-wo-s, form of *kal- (beautiful).

Cognate to Sanskrit कल्य (kalya), Sanskrit कल्याण (kalyā́ṇa).

PronunciationEdit

In most cases:

 

In epic poetry and in some other cases:

 

AdjectiveEdit

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλόν); first/second declension

  1. beautiful, lovely
  2. good, quality, useful
  3. good, right, moral, virtuous, noble

Usage notesEdit

In epic and early iambic poetry, this word almost always has a long (heavy) first syllable. This was originally a consequence of the digamma — καλϝός (kalwós) — which resulted in a syllable ending in a consonant: /kal.ˈwos/. But, once the digamma was lost, the heavy syllable was reanalyzed as being the consequence of a long vowel in the first syllable: κᾱλός (kālós).

  • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.96–97:
    ὣς εἰποῦσ’ ὑπὸ ποσσὶν ἐδήσατο κᾱλὰ [= καλϝά] πέδῑλα,
    ἀμβρόσια χρῡ́σεια,
    hṑs eipoûs’ hupò possìn edḗsato kālà [= kalwá] pédīla,
    ambrósia khrū́seia,
    So saying, she tied beautiful immortal golden sandals under her feet,

In lyric poetry and tragedy, the α is short; in elegiac, epigrammatic, and bucolic poets it is variable.

InflectionEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Greek: καλός (kalós, good)

ReferencesEdit


GreekEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Ancient Greek κᾰλός (beautiful, morally beautiful, of good quality).[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλό)

  1. good
    Antonym: κακός (kakós)
  2. nice, likeable

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

NounEdit

καλός (kalósm (plural καλοί)

  1. the good man
    Οι καλοί θα πάνε στον Παράδεισο.Oi kaloí tha páne ston Parádeiso.The good will go to Heaven.
  2. goodie, goody
  3. sweetheart

DeclensionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ καλός in Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek], 1998, by the "Triantafyllidis" Foundation.