Wiktionary:About Greek/Glossary

A glossary of terms used with Modern Greek entries in this dictionary.

See also Appendix:Glossary for generally applied terms.
Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Contents (Greek): Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

absolute superlative — (cf relative superlative,   and see degrees of comparison )
The form of an adjective which expresses an exceptional quality of something without comparing it with anything else.
eg   Αυτή η σαλάτα ήταν νοστιμότατη. — "That salad was most tasty."
comparative   (see also degrees of comparison)
The form of an adjective allowing comparison between one thing and another. As in English forms can be produced in two ways: most commonly by periphrasis and often by suffixation.
  • by periphrasis:   τολμηρόςπιο τολμηρός     (eg  Κωνσταντίνος είναι πιο τολμηρός από τον Γιώργο — "Konstantinos is more bold than Georgios.")
  • by suffixation:   νέοςνεότερος     (eg  Γιώργος είναι νεότερος από το Κωνσταντίνο — "Georgios is younger than Konstantinos.")
degree of comparisonβαθμός του επιθέτου
The forms of an adjective (or adverb) allowing the comparison of nouns described. For further detail see:
positive,   comparative,   relative superlative,   &   absolute superlative.
dependentεξαρτημένος τύπος
The dependent form (also known as the perfective non-past or aorist subjunctive) of a verb expresses an action completed within a moment (e.g. "I wrote"), not continuously. It is never used on its own. It follows preverbal particles and other words such as: ας (as), να (na), θα (tha), ίσως (ísos), the negative μην (min) or the auxiliary verb έχω (écho). It may be active, or passive:
It forms the subjunctive when used with various particles:
  • Θέλω να γράψω στη μητέρα μου απόψε. — "I should write to my mother tonight."
It forms the future simple tense when used in with the particle θα (tha):
  • Θα γράψει στη μητέρα του. — "He will write to his mother."
And it forms the various perfect tenses when used in conjunction with the auxiliary verb έχω (écho, to have):
  • Έχει γράψει στη μητέρα του. — "He has written to his mother [already]."
The grammatical (not biological) gender of a noun; thus while γυναίκα (woman) is feminine, κορίτσι (girl) is neuter. Other genders are masculine and neuter.
Of a noun whose plural forms have an extra syllable when compared with the singular (eg μεζέςμεζέδες). Compare with #parisyllabic.
imperfect tense
The imperfective or progressive past tense of a verb, indicating an action which was continuous, habitual, repeated or lasting a long time. It may be compared with the perfective or simple past.
The grammatical (not biological) gender of a noun; thus while άντρας (man) is masculine, αγόρι (boy) is neuter. Other genders are feminine and neuter.
The grammatical gender of a noun. This is not the biological gender, for example αγόρι (agóri, boy) is neuter. Other genders are masculine and feminine.
Of a noun whose plural forms have the same number of syllables as the singular (eg θάλασσαθάλασσες). Compare with #imparisyllabic.
passive voice
a verb in the passive voice has a subject which is not the person or thing doing the action, they are usually having the action done to them.
It should be compared with the active voice where the subject is usually the person doing the action — διδάσκω (I teach). Note that deponent verbs conjugate passively but have an active meaning — κάθομαι (I sit).
pastsee: #simple past
perfect passive participle (Category:Greek declinable participles)
A nonfinite verb form used as an adjective. They always end in -μένος, -η, -ο, declining in gender, number and case:
  • (feminine singular) η λυμένη ζώνη — "the unbuckled belt"
  • (neuter plural) τα λυμένα μαλλιά — "the loosened hair"
They are used, normally only with transitive verbs, in the formation of perfect tenses in both their active and passive voices:
  • (active) Ο Γιάννης είχε λυμένη τη ζώνη του. — "Yanni had unbuckled his belt."
  • (passive) Τα μαλλιά της Ελένης ήταν λυμένα. — "Eleni's hair had been loosened."
positiveθετικός βαθμός   (see also degrees of comparison)
The normal basic form of an adjective (or adverb) from which the comparatives and various superlatives are formed.
relative superlative   ( cf absolute superlative,  and see degrees of comparison)
Equivalent to the English superlative it expresses the highest degree and is produced by using the definite article with one of the comparative forms:
  • from the periphrastic:   πιο νέοςο πιο νέος     (eg  Γιώργος είναι ο πιο νέος. — "Georgios is the youngest.")
  • from the suffixed:   νεότεροςο νεότερος     (eg  Γιώργος είναι ο νεότερος. — "Georgios is the youngest.")
simple past tense
The simple or perfective past indicates an action completed at some point in the past. It is also known as the past indefinite, preterite - or, in Greek, as the aorist. It may be compared with the imperfect or imperfective past.
Greek has two superlative forms: relative superlative, absolute superlative.
T-V distinction
The T-V distinction (from the Latin tu and vos) is found in many languages. When using the second-person to someone in Greek a choice must be made between using the singular or plural form of the verb. The choice made depends upon the relationship between the speaker and the person spoken to.
The singular form is familiar and informal, used with family, friends, children and younger people:
The plural is polite and formal, and used with strangers and to give respect:

Contents (Greek): Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
οξύτον-ος, -η, -ος
describes words accented on the final syllable oxytone
ουδέτερ-ος, -η, -ο,   ουδ.
the neuter gender
ουσιαστικό,   ουσ.
noun (part of speech)