Ancient GreekEdit


The four principal parts of the verb display e-grade, o-grade, and zero-grade — πενθ-, πονθ-, παθ- ‎(penth-, ponth-, path-) — from Proto-Indo-European kʷendʰ-, kʷondʰ-, kʷn̥dʰ, from the root *kʷendʰ- ‎(to suffer, endure). Cognate with Lithuanian kenčiù.

The present πάσχω ‎(páskhō), like the aorist ἔπαθον ‎(épathon), comes from the zero-grade παθ- ‎(path-), but with the inchoative suffix -σκ- added *πάθ-σκ-ω ‎(*páth-sk-ō) and subsequent loss of θ ‎(th) before σ ‎(s) and transference of aspiration from θ ‎(th) to κ ‎(k), resulting in χ ‎(kh). The future stem πείσομαι ‎(peísomai) developed from *πενθ-σ-ομαι ‎(*penth-s-omai), from e-grade πενθ- ‎(penth-) with the tense-suffix σ ‎(s), with subsequent cluster simplification νθσ > σ ‎(nths > s) and compensatory lengthening *ε > ει ‎(*e > ei). The future stem πείσω ‎(peísō) of the verb πείθω ‎(peíthō, persuade) is identical.




πάσχω ‎(páskhō)

  1. to undergo, experience (as opposed to acting)
  2. (with another person involved) have someone do something to oneself, to be treated a certain way by someone (with ὑπό ‎(hupó) and genitive, sometimes with adverb of manner)
    1. (in a negative sense) suffer at someone's hands
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 927–929
        Ἀντιγόνη   εἰ δ᾽ οἵδ᾽ ἁμαρτάνουσι, μὴ πλείω κακὰ
        πάθοιεν ἢ καὶ δρῶσιν ἐκδίκως ἐμέ.
        Antigone:   But if they are wrong [to treat me as a criminal], let them suffer no worse than they are doing unjustly to me.
    2. (law) to suffer a punishment
  3. (without a person involved) to experience something, have something happen to one, undergo something
    1. to be in a certain situation (with adverb of manner)
    2. to feel an emotion or impulse
    3. (in negative sense) suffer
    4. to be ill or injured in a certain way (with accusative of part affected)



  • (to be in a certain situation): ἔχω ‎(ékhō)


Derived termsEdit