Open main menu

Wiktionary β

Contents

Ancient GreekEdit

EtymologyEdit

The four principal parts of the verb display e-grade, o-grade, and zero-grade — πενθ-, πονθ-, παθ- (penth-, ponth-, path-) — from Proto-Indo-European kʷendʰ-, kʷondʰ-, kʷn̥dʰ, from the root *kʷendʰ- (to suffer, endure). Cognate with Lithuanian kenčiù.

The present πάσχω (páskhō), like the aorist ἔπαθον (épathon), comes from the zero-grade παθ- (path-), but with the inchoative suffix -σκω (-skō) added *πάθ-σκ-ω (*páth-sk-ō) and subsequent loss of θ (th) before σ (s) and transference of aspiration from θ (th) to κ (k), resulting in χ (kh). The future stem πείσομαι (peísomai) developed from *πενθ-σ-ομαι (*penth-s-omai), from e-grade πενθ- (penth-) with the tense-suffix σ (s), with subsequent cluster simplification νθσ > σ (nths > s) and compensatory lengthening *ε > ει (*e > ei). The future stem πείσω (peísō) of the verb πείθω (peíthō, persuade) is identical.

PronunciationEdit

 

VerbEdit

πᾰ́σχω (páskhō)

  1. to undergo, experience (as opposed to acting)
  2. (with another person involved) have someone do something to oneself, to be treated a certain way by someone (with ὑπό (hupó) and genitive, sometimes with adverb of manner)
    1. (in a negative sense) suffer at someone's hands
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 927–929
        Ἀντιγόνη   εἰ δ᾽ οἵδ᾽ ἁμαρτάνουσι, μὴ πλείω κακὰ
        πάθοιεν ἢ καὶ δρῶσιν ἐκδίκως ἐμέ.
        Antigónē   ei d᾽ hoíd᾽ hamartánousi, mḕ pleíō kakà
        páthoien ḕ kaì drôsin ekdíkōs emé.
        Antigone:   But if they are wrong [to treat me as a criminal], let them suffer no worse than they are doing unjustly to me.
    2. (law) to suffer a punishment
  3. (without a person involved) to experience something, have something happen to one, undergo something
    1. to be in a certain situation (with adverb of manner)
    2. to feel an emotion or impulse
    3. (in negative sense) suffer
    4. to be ill or injured in a certain way (with accusative of part affected)
      • Πάσχω τὴν καρδίαν.
        Páskhō tḕn kardían.

InflectionEdit

SynonymsEdit

  • (to be in a certain situation): ἔχω (ékhō)

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit