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Ancient GreekEdit


The four principal parts of the verb display e-grade, o-grade, and zero-grade — πενθ-, πονθ-, παθ- (penth-, ponth-, path-) — from Proto-Indo-European kʷendʰ-, kʷondʰ-, kʷn̥dʰ, from the root *kʷendʰ- (to suffer, endure). Cognate with Lithuanian kenčiù.

The present πάσχω (páskhō), like the aorist ἔπαθον (épathon), comes from the zero-grade παθ- (path-), but with the inchoative suffix -σκω (-skō) added *πάθ-σκ-ω (*páth-sk-ō) and subsequent loss of θ (th) before σ (s) and transference of aspiration from θ (th) to κ (k), resulting in χ (kh). The future stem πείσομαι (peísomai) developed from *πενθ-σ-ομαι (*penth-s-omai), from e-grade πενθ- (penth-) with the tense-suffix σ (s), with subsequent cluster simplification νθσ > σ (nths > s) and compensatory lengthening *ε > ει (*e > ei). The future stem πείσω (peísō) of the verb πείθω (peíthō, persuade) is identical.


  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /pás.kʰɔː/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈpas.kʰo/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈpas.xo/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈpas.xo/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈpas.xo/
  • VerbEdit

    πᾰ́σχω (páskhō)

    1. to undergo, experience (as opposed to acting)
    2. (with another person involved) have someone do something to oneself, to be treated a certain way by someone (with ὑπό (hupó) and genitive, sometimes with adverb of manner)
      1. (in a negative sense) suffer at someone's hands
        • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 927–929
          Ἀντιγόνη   εἰ δ᾽ οἵδ᾽ ἁμαρτάνουσι, μὴ πλείω κακὰ
          πάθοιεν ἢ καὶ δρῶσιν ἐκδίκως ἐμέ.
          Antigónē   ei d᾽ hoíd᾽ hamartánousi, mḕ pleíō kakà
          páthoien ḕ kaì drôsin ekdíkōs emé.
          Antigone:   But if they are wrong [to treat me as a criminal], let them suffer no worse than they are doing unjustly to me.
      2. (law) to suffer a punishment
    3. (without a person involved) to experience something, have something happen to one, undergo something
      1. to be in a certain situation (with adverb of manner)
      2. to feel an emotion or impulse
      3. (in negative sense) suffer
      4. to be ill or injured in a certain way (with accusative of part affected)
        • Πάσχω τὴν καρδίαν.
          Páskhō tḕn kardían.



    • (to be in a certain situation): ἔχω (ékhō)


    Derived termsEdit