Ancient GreekEdit


The four principal parts of the verb display e-grade, o-grade, and zero-grade — πενθ-, πονθ-, παθ- (penth-, ponth-, path-) — from Proto-Indo-European kʷendʰ-, kʷondʰ-, kʷn̥dʰ, from the root *kʷendʰ- (to suffer, endure). Cognate with Lithuanian kenčiù.

The present πάσχω (páskhō), like the aorist ἔπαθον (épathon), comes from the zero-grade παθ- (path-), but with the inchoative suffix -σκ- added *πάθ-σκ-ω (*páth-sk-ō) and subsequent loss of θ (th) before σ (s) and transference of aspiration from θ (th) to κ (k), resulting in χ (kh). The future stem πείσομαι (peísomai) developed from *πενθ-σ-ομαι (*penth-s-omai), from e-grade πενθ- (penth-) with the tense-suffix σ (s), with subsequent cluster simplification νθσ > σ (nths > s) and compensatory lengthening *ε > ει (*e > ei). The future stem πείσω (peísō) of the verb πείθω (peíthō, persuade) is identical.



Mark the vowel length of the ambiguous vowel ά by adding a macron after it if it is long, or a breve if it is short. By default, Module:grc-pronunciation assumes it is short if unmarked.


πάσχω (páskhō)

  1. to undergo, experience (as opposed to acting)
  2. (with another person involved) have someone do something to oneself, to be treated a certain way by someone (with ὑπό (hupó) and genitive, sometimes with adverb of manner)
    1. (in a negative sense) suffer at someone's hands
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 927–929
        Ἀντιγόνη   εἰ δ᾽ οἵδ᾽ ἁμαρτάνουσι, μὴ πλείω κακὰ
        πάθοιεν ἢ καὶ δρῶσιν ἐκδίκως ἐμέ.
        Antigone:   But if they are wrong [to treat me as a criminal], let them suffer no worse than they are doing unjustly to me.
    2. (law) to suffer a punishment
  3. (without a person involved) to experience something, have something happen to one, undergo something
    1. to be in a certain situation (with adverb of manner)
    2. to feel an emotion or impulse
    3. (in negative sense) suffer
    4. to be ill or injured in a certain way (with accusative of part affected)
      • Πάσχω τὴν καρδίαν.



  • (to be in a certain situation): ἔχω (ékhō)


Derived termsEdit