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See also: έχω


Ancient GreekEdit


From Proto-Indo-European *seǵʰ-. Cognates include Mycenaean Greek 𐀁𐀐 (e-ke), Sanskrit सहते (sáhate) and Old English siġe.


  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /é.kʰɔː/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈɛ.kʰo/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈe.xo/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈe.xo/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈe.xo/
  • VerbEdit

    ἔχω (ékhō)

    1. I have, possess, contain, own
      1. I keep, have charge of
      2. (with accusative of place) I inhabit
      3. (of place) I keep (to the left/right) of
      4. I possess mentally, understand
      5. I involve, admit of
    2. I hold
      1. I hold fast, grip
      2. (of arms and clothes) I bear, wear
      3. (of a woman) I am pregnant
      4. I hold a course, guide, drive, steer
      5. I hold back, stay, check
    3. (with infinitive) I have means to do, I am able
      1. I have to, must
      2. (followed by a dependent clause) I know
    4. (impersonal) there is
    5. (intransitive) I hold myself, keep balanced
      1. I hold fast
      2. (with genitive) I keep from
      3. I am
      4. (with adverbs of manner) I am, I happen
      5. (with εὖ and genitive of manner) I am well off for something; I abound in it
      6. (post-Homeric, with aorist participle) I keep (doing something)
    6. (middle) I hold myself fast, cling closely to
      1. I come next to, follow closely, neighbour
      2. I depend
        1. I am connected with by etymology
      3. I pertain to
      4. I bear or hold for myself
      5. I maintain myself, stand my ground
        1. (with accusative) I repel from myself
      6. I keep myself back, abstain from, refrain from

    Usage notesEdit

    The future ἕξω (héxō) is imperfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the imperfect tense), with continuative aspect ("I will have") whereas σχήσω (skhḗsō) is perfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the aorist), with an inchoative aspect ("I will get"). Aorist forms of stative verbs often have an inchoative meaning.[1]


    Derived termsEdit

    Related termsEdit


    1. ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920), “Part IV: Syntax”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 1924

    Further readingEdit