See also: έχω and ϝέχω

Ancient Greek edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Hellenic *hékʰō, from Proto-Indo-European *séǵʰeti, from Proto-Indo-European *seǵʰ-.

Compare Mycenaean Greek 𐀃𐀏 (o-ka) and 𐀁𐀐 (e-ke).

Pronunciation edit


Verb edit

ἔχω (ékhō)

  1. to have, possess, contain, own
    1. to keep, have charge of
    2. (with accusative of place) to inhabit
    3. (of place) to keep (to the left/right) of
    4. to possess mentally, understand
    5. to involve, admit of
  2. to hold
    1. to hold fast, grip
    2. (of arms and clothes) to bear, wear
    3. (of a woman) to be pregnant
    4. to hold a course, guide, drive, steer
    5. to hold back, stay, check
  3. (with infinitive) to have means to do, to be able
    1. to have to, must
    2. (followed by a dependent clause) to know
  4. (impersonal) there is
  5. (intransitive) to hold oneself, keep balanced
    1. to hold fast
    2. (with genitive) to keep from
    3. to be
    4. (with adverbs of manner) to be, to happen
    5. (with εὖ and genitive of manner) to be well off for something; to abound in it
    6. (post-Homeric, with aorist participle) to keep (doing something)
  6. (middle voice) to hold oneself fast, cling closely to
    1. to come next to, follow closely, neighbour
    2. to depend
      1. to be connected with by etymology
    3. to pertain to
    4. to bear or hold for oneself
    5. to maintain oneself, stand one's ground
      1. (with accusative) to repel from oneself
    6. to keep oneself back, abstain from, refrain from

Usage notes edit

The future ἕξω (héxō) is imperfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the imperfect tense), with continuative aspect ("I will have") whereas σχήσω (skhḗsō) is perfective (meaning that it has the same aspect as the aorist), with an inchoative aspect ("I will get"). Aorist forms of stative verbs often have an inchoative meaning.[1]

Inflection edit

Homer uses the poetic aorist ἔσχεθον rather than ἔσχον about half the time, and likewise in ἀνέχω, κατέχω, ὑπέχω, and ὑπερέχω.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Greek: έχω (écho)
  • Mariupol Greek: э́ху (éxu)

References edit

  1. ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920), “Part IV: Syntax”, in A Greek grammar for colleges, Cambridge: American Book Company, § 1924

Further reading edit