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Middle JapaneseEdit

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Etymology 1Edit


From Old Japanese kapyeru (stem: kapyer-), Eastern Old Japanese kapyiru.[1] Derived in turn from Proto-Japonic *kapi-ra-, root *kapi- (“to turn”).

The intransitive counterpart to transitive / causative form かへす (kafesu, to give something back; to make something go back).[2]


かへる (quadrigrade, intransitive, rōmaji kaferu, stem kafer-)

  1. (反る, 返る) circumstances or things become backwards or flipped:
    1. (反る) to turn backwards, to flip or turn so the back side is facing forwards; to turn upside-down; to fall over on a side
    2. (反る) to change in shape or quality, to fade in color
  2. (反る, 返る, 帰る, 還る) circumstances or things go back to their original position or state:
    1. (帰る) to arrive back home; to leave in order to go home
    2. (返る, 還る) to return or go back to an original state
    3. (返る) to start again, to renew (generally in reference to the new year)
      1. (attributive) early the following (year, etc.)
        • early 1000s, Sarashina Nikki:
          かへる (とし)のつかさめしに
          kaferu toshi no tsukameshi ni
          at the summoning of the following year's new officials

Derived termsEdit



  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN