From Middle English shap, schape, from Old English ġesceap (“shape, form, created being, creature, creation, dispensation, fate, condition, sex, gender, genitalia”), from Proto-West Germanic *ga- + *skap, from Proto-Germanic *ga- + *skapą (“shape, nature, condition”), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kep- (“to split, cut”). Cognate with Middle Dutch schap (“form”), Middle High German geschaf (“creature”), Icelandic skap (“state, condition, temper, mood”).
The verb is from Middle English shapen, schapen, from Old English scieppan (“to shape, form, make, create, assign, arrange, destine, order, adjudge”), from Proto-Germanic *skapjaną (“to create”), from the noun. Cognate with Dutch scheppen, German schaffen, Swedish skapa (“create, make”), Norwegian Bokmål skape (“create”). Doublet of -ship.
shape (countable and uncountable, plural shapes)
- The status or condition of something
The used bookshop wouldn’t offer much due to the poor shape of the book.
- Condition of personal health, especially muscular health.
The vet checked to see what kind of shape the animal was in.
We exercise to keep in good physical shape.
- The appearance of something in terms of its arrangement in space, especially its outline; often a basic geometric two-dimensional figure.
He cut a square shape out of the cake.
What shape shall we use for the cookies? Stars, circles, or diamonds?
- Form; formation.
- 2006, Berdj Kenadjian, Martin Zakarian, From Darkness to Light:
- What if God's plans and actions do mold the shape of human events?
- (iron manufacture) A rolled or hammered piece, such as a bar, beam, angle iron, etc., having a cross section different from merchant bar.
- (iron manufacture) A piece which has been roughly forged nearly to the form it will receive when completely forged or fitted.
- (cooking, now rare) A mould for making blancmange, jelly, etc., or a piece of such food formed moulded into a particular shape.
1918 March, Rebecca West [pseudonym; Cicily Isabel Fairfield], chapter IV, in The Return of the Soldier, 1st US edition, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., →OCLC, page 92:
And if I 'm late for supper there 's a dish of macaroni cheese you must put in the oven and a tin of tomatoes to eat with it. And there is a little rhubarb and shape.
- 1978, Jane Gardam, God on the Rocks, Abacus 2014, p. 111:
- It was brawn and shape for high tea.
- (gambling) A loaded die.
- 1961, United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Gambling and Organized Crime: Hearings (page 76)
- A top cheater seldom ever uses shapes or loaded dice because they do not assure you of winning.
- (programming) In the Hack programming language, a group of data fields each of which has a name and a data type.
status or condition
- Armenian: վիճակ (hy) (vičak)
- Bulgarian: състояние (bg) n (sǎstojanie), положение (bg) n (položenie)
- Mandarin: 樣子／样子 (zh) (yàngzi)
- Czech: stav (cs) m, forma (cs) f
- Danish: form (da) c, tilstand (da) c
- Dutch: staat (nl), status (nl), toestand (nl)
- Finnish: kunto (fi)
- Georgian: მდგომარეობა (mdgomareoba), ფორმა (porma)
- German: Zustand (de) m, Form (de) f
- Hebrew: מצב (he) m (matsáv)
- Italian: condizione (it), stato (it)
- Japanese: 様子 (ja) (ようす, yōsu), ようす (yōsu)
- Javanese: kaanan (jv)
- Latin: forma (la), figura
- Polish: kształt (pl) m
- Portuguese: condição (pt) f, estado (pt) m
- Romanian: stare (ro) f, formă (ro)
- Russian: фо́рма (ru) f (fórma), состоя́ние (ru) n (sostojánije)
- Scottish Gaelic: cor m, staid f
- Spanish: forma (es) f, estado (es) m
- Swedish: form (sv) c, tillstånd (sv) n
- Telugu: స్థితి (te) (sthiti)
- Turkish: durum (tr), şekil (tr), vaziyet (tr)
- Welsh: cyflwr (cy) m
condition of personal health, especially muscular health
appearance or outline
- Albanian: formë (sq) f
- Arabic: شَكْل m (šakl), (plural) أَشْكَال m pl (ʔaškāl)
- Armenian: ձեւ (hy) (jew)
- Azerbaijani: şəkil (az), forma (az)
- Belarusian: фо́рма (be) f (fórma)
- Bengali: আকৃতি (akr̥ti), আকার (bn) (akar)
- Bulgarian: фо́рма (bg) f (fórma), вид (bg) m (vid)
- Burmese: ပုံ (my) (pum)
- Catalan: forma (ca) f
- Mandarin: 形狀／形状 (zh) (xíngzhuàng), 形式 (zh) (xíngshì)
- Czech: tvar (cs) m
- Danish: form (da) c
- Dutch: vorm (nl) m
- Estonian: kuju (et), vorm
- Faroese: skap n
- Finnish: muoto (fi), kuvio (fi)
- French: forme (fr) f
- Galician: forma (gl) f
- Georgian: ფორმა (porma), მოხაზულობა (moxazuloba), მოყვანილობა (moq̇vaniloba)
- German: Form (de) f, Gestalt (de) f
- Greek: μορφή (el) f (morfí)
- Ancient: μορφή f (morphḗ), σχῆμα n (skhêma)
- Guaraní: ysaja
- Hebrew: צוּרָה (he) f (tsurá)
- Hindi: आकार (hi) m (ākār)
- Hungarian: alak (hu), forma (hu)
- Icelandic: form (is)
- Indonesian: bentuk (id)
- Irish: cruth m
- Italian: forma (it) f, sagoma (it)
- Japanese: 形 (ja) (かたち, katachi), 型 (ja) (かた, kata), 形式 (ja) (けいしき, keishiki)
- Javanese: wangun, wujud, rupa (jv), dhapur, warna, warni
- Kazakh: нысан (nysan), форма (kk) (forma), пішім (pışım)
- Khmer: គ្រោង (km) (kroong)
- Korean: 모양(模樣) (ko) (moyang), 형식(形式) (ko) (hyeongsik), 형(形) (ko) (hyeong)
- Northern Kurdish: şikil (ku)
- Kven: haamu
- Kyrgyz: форма (ky) (forma)
- Lao: ຮູບຮ່າງ (hūp hāng)
- Latin: forma (la), figūra f
- Latvian: forma f
- Lithuanian: forma (lt) f
- Luhya: liumbo
- Macedonian: облик m (oblik)
- Malay: bentuk (ms)
- Maori: āhuahanga
- Cyrillic: хэлбэр (mn) (xelber)
- Bokmål: form (no) m or f
- Ottoman Turkish: شكل (şekl, şekil)
- Pashto: شکل (ps) m (šᶕkәl)
- Persian: شکل (fa) (šakl)
- Polish: kształt (pl) m, forma (pl)
- Portuguese: forma (pt) f
- Romanian: formă (ro) f
- Russian: фо́рма (ru) f (fórma)
- Sanskrit: रूप (sa) n (rūpa)
- Scottish Gaelic: cumadh m, cruth m
- Cyrillic: о̏блӣк m
- Roman: ȍblīk (sh) m
- Slovak: tvar m
- Slovene: oblika (sl) f
- Spanish: forma (es) f
- Swahili: umbo (sw)
- Swedish: form (sv) c
- Tagalog: hugis (tl)
- Tajik: шакл (tg) (šakl)
- Telugu: ఆకారం (te) (ākāraṁ), ఆకృతి (te) (ākr̥ti)
- Thai: รูปร่าง (th) (rûup-râang), รูป (th) (rûup)
- Tocharian B: ersna
- Turkish: görünüş (tr), şekil (tr)
- Turkmen: şekil, forma, görnüş
- Ukrainian: фо́рма (uk) f (fórma), ви́гляд (uk) (výhljad), кшталт (uk) m (kštalt)
- Urdu: شکل (šakl)
- Uyghur: شەكىل (shekil)
- Uzbek: shakl (uz), forma (uz)
- Vietnamese: hình dáng (vi), hình thức (vi)
- Welsh: siâp (cy) m
- Yiddish: פֿאָרעם (forem)
iron manufacture: rolled or hammered piece having a cross section different from merchant bar
iron manufacture: piece which has been roughly forged nearly to its final form
cookery: mould — see mold
programming: group of defined data fields
Translations to be checked
- Catalan: (please verify) forma (ca) f
- Mandarin: (please verify) 形狀／形状 (zh) (xíngzhuàng) , (please verify) 外形 (zh) (wàixíng)
- Czech: (please verify) tvar (cs) m
- Danish: (please verify) form (da) c
- Dutch: (please verify) vorm (nl) , (please verify) fysiek (nl) (Flemish)
- Esperanto: (please verify) formo (eo)
- French: (please verify) forme (fr) f
- Galician: (please verify) forma (gl) f
- Georgian: (please verify) ფორმა (porma) , ფიგურა (pigura)
- German: (please verify) Form (de) f
- Ido: (please verify) formo (io)
- Indonesian: (please verify) bentuk (id)
- Italian: (please verify) forma (it) f , (please verify) figura (it) f
- Japanese: (please verify) 形 (ja) (かたち, katachi) , (please verify) 形状 (ja) (けいじょう, keijō) , (please verify) 形態 (ja) (けいたい, keitai)
- Latin: (please verify) figura , (please verify) forma (la)
- Portuguese: (please verify) forma (pt) f
- Romanian: (please verify) formă (ro) f
- Russian: (please verify) фо́рма (ru) f (fórma) , (please verify) фигу́ра (ru) f (figúra)
- Slovene: (please verify) oblika (sl) f
- Spanish: (please verify) forma (es) f
- Swedish: (please verify) form (sv) c
- Tagalog: (please verify) hugis (tl)
- Telugu: (please verify) ఆకారము (te) (ākāramu) , ఆకృతి (te) (ākr̥ti)
- Turkish: (please verify) şekil (tr)
- Ukrainian: (please verify) фігу́ра (fihúra)
shape (third-person singular simple present shapes, present participle shaping, simple past shaped or (obsolete) shope, past participle shaped or (archaic) shapen)
- (Northern England, Scotland, rare) To create or make.
Earth was shapen by God for God's folk.
- 1685, Satan's Invisible World Discoveredː
- Which the mighty God of heaven shope.
- (transitive) To give something a shape and definition.
- 1932, The American Scholar, page 227, United Chapters of Phi Beta Kappa
- The professor never pretended to the academic prerogative of forcing his students into his own channels of reasoning; he entered into and helped shape the discussion but above all he made his men learn to think for themselves and rely upon their own intellectual judgments.
2013 August 3, “Revenge of the nerds”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8847:
Think of banking today and the image is of grey-suited men in towering skyscrapers. Its future, however, is being shaped in converted warehouses and funky offices in San Francisco, New York and London, where bright young things in jeans and T-shirts huddle around laptops, sipping lattes or munching on free food.
Shape the dough into a pretzel. For my art project, I plan to shape my clay lump into a bowl.
- To form or manipulate something into a certain shape.
1718, Mat[thew] Prior, “Solomon on the Vanity of the World. A Poem in Three Books.”, in Poems on Several Occasions, London: […] Jacob Tonson […], and John Barber […], →OCLC, book II (Pleasure), page 437:
Mature the Virgin was of Egypt's Race: / Grace ſhap'd her Limbs; and Beauty deck'd her Face: […]
2010 December 29, Mark Vesty, “Wigan 2-2 Arsenal”, in BBC:
Bendtner's goal-bound shot was well saved by goalkeeper Ali Al Habsi but fell to Arsahvin on the edge of the area and the Russian swivelled, shaped his body and angled a sumptuous volley into the corner.
- (of a country, person, etc) To give influence to.
- To suit; to be adjusted or conformable.
1611 April (first recorded performance), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Cymbeline”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act V, scene v]:
The more of you 'twas felt, the more it shap'd / Unto my end of stealing them
- (obsolete) To imagine; to conceive.
c. 1603–1604 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Othello, the Moore of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act III, scene iii]:
Oft my jealousy / Shapes faults that are not.
to give something a shape
- Bulgarian: оформям (oformjam)
- Catalan: formar (ca)
- Mandarin: 使成形 (shǐ chéngxíng)
- Czech: utvářet, formovat, tvarovat
- Danish: forme (da)
- Esperanto: formi
- Finnish: muotoilla (fi), muovata (fi)
- French: donner une forme, former (fr)
- German: formen (de)
- Gothic: 𐌳𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (digan)
- Ancient: πλάσσω (plássō), μορφόω (morphóō)
- Hebrew: עיצב (itsév)
- Ido: formacar (io)
- Irish: cum
- Italian: modellare (it), dare forma, plasmare (it), sagomare (it), formare (it)
- Japanese: 形作る (ja) (katachizukuru)
- Kazakh: қалыптастыру (qalyptastyru)
- Latin: fingō, formō (la)
- Polish: kształtować (pl) impf, ukształtować (pl) pf
- Portuguese: modelar (pt)
- Romanian: modela (ro)
- Slovene: oblikovati
- Lower Sorbian: formowaś impf
- Spanish: modelar (es), formar (es)
- Swedish: forma (sv)
- Telugu: రూపుదిద్దు (rūpudiddu)
- Tocharian B: tsik-
- Turkish: biçimlendirmek (tr), şekillendirmek (tr)
- Ukrainian: формува́ти (formuváty), сформува́ти pf (sformuváty)
- Welsh: llunio (cy), siapio (cy)