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U+86D9, 蛙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-86D9

[U+86D8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+86DA]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 142, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 中戈土土 (LIGG), four-corner 54114, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1081, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32997
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1549, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2847, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+86D9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreː, *kreː
*ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː
*ŋreː, *ŋreːʔ
*kreː
*ɡreː, *kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreːs
*qreː
*qreː, *qʷraː, *kʷeː
*qreː, *qʷraː
*ɡeː, *kʷeː
*qeːns
*ɡʷraːʔ
*ɡʷraːʔ, *ɡʷreːs, *ɡʷeː
*ɡʷraːʔ, *qʰʷe
*qʷraː, *qʷreː
*qʷraː
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
詿 *kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs
*kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs, *kʷeːs
*kʰʷreː, *ɡʷreːs
*ɢʷreː, *qʷreː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː, *ɡʷeː
*kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*kʷeːs
*kʷeːs
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*qʰʷeː
*ɡʷeː
*ɡʷeː, *sqʰʷe, *qʰʷe, *qʰʷi
*qʷeː, *kʰʷeːŋʔ
*kʰʷeʔ
*qʷes
*qʰʷreɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʷraː, *qʷreː): semantic  (insect; creature) + phonetic  (OC *kʷeː).

Etymology 1Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Onomatopoeic?”

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua⁵⁵/
Harbin /ua²⁴/
Tianjin /vɑ²¹/
Jinan /va⁴²/
Qingdao /va²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ua²⁴/
Xi'an /ua²¹/
Xining /ua⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /va⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /va⁵³/
Ürümqi /va⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ua⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ua⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ua⁵⁵/
Kunming /ua̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /uɑ³¹/
Hefei /ua²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /va¹¹/
Pingyao /uɑ¹³/
Hohhot /va³¹/
Wu Shanghai /o⁵³/
Suzhou /o⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ³³/
Wenzhou /o³³/
Hui Shexian /ua³¹/
Tunxi /ua¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ua³³/
Xiangtan /uɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /va⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /wa⁵⁵/
Nanning /wa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (34) (34)
Final () (32) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠuɛ/ /ʔˠua/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔʷᵚæ/ /ʔʷᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuæi/ /ʔua/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔwaɨj/ /ʔwaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʔuɛ/ /ʔua/
Wang
Li
/wai/ /wa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔwai/ /ʔwa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ 'wae › ‹ 'wea › ‹ hwae › ‹ hwea ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*qʷˁre/ /*m-qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*m-qʷˁre/
English frog frog frog frog

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4552 4567
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʷraː/ /*qʷreː/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. frog
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of 青蛙 (“frog”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 青蛙
Taxonomic name
Mandarin Beijing 蛤蟆, 田雞
Taiwan 青蛙, 田雞
Harbin 蛤蟆, 青乖子
Shenyang 蛤蟆, 青乖子
Jinan 蛤蟆, 田雞
Muping 蚧巴子, 張拉崴子, 張崴子
Luoyang 蛤蟆
Wanrong 水雞子
Xi'an 蛤蟆, 田雞
Xining 青蛙
Xuzhou 水雞兒
Yinchuan 田畝雞
Lanzhou 金蛤蟆, 長腿癩蛤蟆
Ürümqi 青蛙
Wuhan 蛤蟆, 綠蛤蟆, 田雞
Chengdu 蜞螞兒, 青蜞螞兒, 青蛙, 田雞
Guiyang 青蛙, 田雞
Liuzhou 蟆𧊅
Kunming 青蛙, 田雞
Yangzhou 田雞子, 田雞, 水雞子
Nanjing 田雞, 水雞, 蛤蟆, 青蛙
Hefei 蛤蟆, 田雞
Nantong 田雞
Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 懶呱子
Cantonese Guangzhou 蛤乸, 蛤𧊅, 田雞
Hong Kong 蛤乸, 蛤𧊅, 田雞, 青蛙
Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 蛤𧊅, 蛤乸
Foshan 田雞
Taishan 田雞
Dongguan , 田雞
Yangjiang , 田雞
Xinyi 蛤乸, 蛤𧊅
Nanning 蛤乸
Kuala Lumpur 田雞, 青蛙
Gan Nanchang 蛤蟆, 田雞, 老蛤
Lichuan 蛤蟆
Pingxiang 鬼蛤蟆
Hakka Meixian 𧊅仔, 田雞, 蛤蟆
Changting 蛤蟆
Yudu 𧊅
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𧊅仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𧊅仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 𧊅仔
Dongshi (Dabu) 𧊅
Hsinchu (Raoping) 𧊅仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𧊅子
Hong Kong 蛤蟆
Sabah 蛤蟆, 𧊅哩, 蛤𧊅
Senai 𧊅仔
Singkawang 𧊅
Huizhou Jixi 水雞, 田雞, 蛤蟆
Jin Taiyuan 蛤蟆
Xinzhou 蛤蟆
Hohhot 蛤蟆
Min Bei Jian'ou 田狗, 水雞
Min Dong Fuzhou 青蛤, 黃䱝, 水雞
Fuqing 青蛤, 黃䱝, 水雞
Matsu 黃䱝
Min Nan Xiamen 田蛤仔, 水雞
Quanzhou 埯魅坸仔, 水雞
Zhangzhou 田蛤仔, 水雞
Taipei 大肚仔魚, 水雞, 田蛤仔, 杜蝛仔
Kaohsiung 水雞, 四跤仔, 田蛤仔
Tainan 水雞, 四跤魚, 田蛤仔, 田僑
Taichung 水雞
Hsinchu 水雞
Lukang 水雞, 田蛤仔
Sanxia 水雞, 田蛤仔, 肚蛙
Yilan 水雞, 蛤仔
Kinmen 水雞
Magong 水雞
Penang 水雞
Chaozhou 蛤虯, 水雞
Haifeng 蛤蛄, 蛤虯
Johor Bahru 蛤虯
Haikou , 田雞, 螻蛤
Leizhou 田雞,
Puxian Min Putian 洋乜, 水雞
Xianyou 洋乜, 水雞
Pinghua Nanning , 田雞
Guilin 蛤蟆
Wu Shanghai 田雞, 青蛙
Suzhou 田雞, 青蛙
Hangzhou 田雞
Wenzhou 蛤蟆, 蛤蟆牯, 田雞
Chongming 田雞
Danyang 田雞, 青蛙
Jinhua 田雞, 蟥蟆
Tangxi 田雞, 蛤蟆
Ningbo 田雞, 水雞
Xiang Changsha 蛤蟆, 蛤蟆子, 蟆𧊅, 水雞
Shuangfeng 蟆𧊅子
Loudi 蟆𧊅, 蟆𧊅子
Quanzhou 蟆𧊅
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 蝭蛙.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(kaeru, kawazu, kairu): a frog.
Kanji in this term
かえる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kaeru/

From Old Japanese.

Only found once in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, where it is used phonetically to spell the name of the maple tree.[1] Generally regarded as the informal or everyday term for frog, in contrast to the formal or poetic term kawazu (see below).[2]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, with numerous theories. Some of the leading ideas include:

  • Cognate with 帰る (kaeru, to return (to a point of origin)), from the way that some species of frogs return to their birthplace to spawn
  • Cognate with 孵る (kaeru, to hatch (from an egg)), in reference to tadpoles
  • Derived from onomatopoeia, where kape originally referred to the frog's call, suffixed uncertain element -ru

The phonetic development went through a clear stage where the middle mora was pronounced /je/, as illustrated in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cayeru.[3] This was likely a result of the Muromachi period sound shift, where /we/ shifted to /je/, followed later by /je/ merging into /e/ to produce modern /kaeru/.

Now the most common term for frog.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かえる, katakana カエル, rōmaji kaeru, historical hiragana かへる)

  1. a frog (amphibious animal)
Usage notesEdit

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カエル.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
かわず
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kapadu⟩ → */kapadu//kafad͡zu//kawad͡zu//kawazu/

The more formal or poetic counterpart to kaeru (see above).[2] Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[7]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, but the initial kawa portion (ancient kapa) is very likely , (kawa, ancient kapa, river).

The phonetic development of the term had already progressed to kawadzu by 1603, as seen in the Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cauazzu.[8]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かわず, rōmaji kawazu, historical hiragana かはづ)

  1. (poetic) a frog (amphibious animal)
  2. (Noh theater) a specific mask used in certain Noh plays, depicting a drowned person
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かいる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kairu/

Sound shift. Existed alongside earlier kayeru in the late 1500s, early 1600s, as seen in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cairu.[9]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かいる, rōmaji kairu)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a frog (amphibious animal)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
kan’yōon

AffixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji a)

  1. frog (amphibious animal)

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 8, poem 1623), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here towards the bottom of the right-hand column
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 356), text here
  8. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, fifth entry from the bottom of the right-hand column
  9. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here as the fourth entry in the right-hand column, defined in Portuguese as raã, typographic variant of rãa, earlier form of modern (frog)

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(wa, wae) (hangeul , , revised wa, wae, McCune–Reischauer wa, wae, Yale wa, way)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(oa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.