U+86D9, 蛙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-86D9

[U+86D8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+86DA]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 142, +6, 12 strokes, cangjie input 中戈土土 (LIGG), four-corner 54114, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1081, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32997
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1549, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2847, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+86D9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʷraː, *qʷreː): semantic (insect; creature) + phonetic (OC *kʷeː).

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Onomatopoeic?”)

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ua⁵⁵/
Harbin /ua²⁴/
Tianjin /vɑ²¹/
Jinan /va⁴²/
Qingdao /va²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ua²⁴/
Xi'an /ua²¹/
Xining /ua⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /va⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /va⁵³/
Ürümqi /va⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ua⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ua⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ua⁵⁵/
Kunming /ua̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /uɑ³¹/
Hefei /ua²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /va¹¹/
Pingyao /uɑ¹³/
Hohhot /va³¹/
Wu Shanghai /o⁵³/
Suzhou /o⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔuɑ³³/
Wenzhou /o³³/
Hui Shexian /ua³¹/
Tunxi /ua¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ua³³/
Xiangtan /uɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /uɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /va⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /wa⁵⁵/
Nanning /wa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ua⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ua⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ua³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (34) (34)
Final () (32) (99)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠuɛ/ /ʔˠua/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔʷᵚæ/ /ʔʷᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔuæi/ /ʔua/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔwaɨj/ /ʔwaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʔuɛ/ /ʔua/
Wang
Li
/wai/ /wa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔwai/ /ʔwa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ 'wae › ‹ 'wea › ‹ hwae › ‹ hwea ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*qʷˁre/ /*m-qʷˁre/ (MC -ae for -ea) /*m-qʷˁre/
English frog frog frog frog

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4552 4567
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʷraː/ /*qʷreː/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. frog
SynonymsEdit
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 蝭蛙.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(kaeru, kawazu, kairu): a frog.
Kanji in this term
かえる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kaeru/

From Old Japanese.

Only found once in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, where it is used phonetically to spell the name of the maple tree.[1] Generally regarded as the informal or everyday term for frog, in contrast to the formal or poetic term kawazu (see below).[2]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, with numerous theories. Some of the leading ideas include:

  • Cognate with 帰る (kaeru, to return (to a point of origin)), from the way that some species of frogs return to their birthplace to spawn
  • Cognate with 孵る (kaeru, to hatch (from an egg)), in reference to tadpoles
  • Derived from onomatopoeia, where kape originally referred to the frog's call, suffixed uncertain element -ru

The phonetic development went through a clear stage where the middle mora was pronounced /je/, as illustrated in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cayeru.[3] This was likely a result of the Muromachi period sound shift, where /we/ shifted to /je/, followed later by /je/ merging into /e/ to produce modern /kaeru/.

Now the most common term for frog.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(かえる) (kaeruかへる (kaferu)?

  1. a frog (amphibious animal)
Usage notesEdit

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カエル.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
かわず
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kapadu⟩ → */kapadu//kafad͡zu//kawad͡zu//kawazu/

The more formal or poetic counterpart to kaeru (see above).[2] Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[7]

The ultimate derivation is unclear, but the initial kawa portion (ancient kapa) is very likely , (kawa, ancient kapa, river).

The phonetic development of the term had already progressed to kawadzu by 1603, as seen in the Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cauazzu.[8]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かわず) (kawazuかはづ (kafadu)?

  1. (poetic) a frog (amphibious animal)
  2. (Noh theater) a specific mask used in certain Noh plays, depicting a drowned person
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かいる
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

⟨kaperu⟩/kaperu//kaferu//kaweru//kajeru//kairu/

Sound shift. Existed alongside earlier kayeru in the late 1500s, early 1600s, as seen in the 1603 Nippo Jisho entry, spelled cairu.[9]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(かいる) (kairu

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a frog (amphibious animal)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Hyōgaiji
kan’yōon

AffixEdit

() (a

  1. frog (amphibious animal)

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 8, poem 1623), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here towards the bottom of the right-hand column
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 356), text here
  8. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, fifth entry from the bottom of the right-hand column
  9. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here as the fourth entry in the right-hand column, defined in Portuguese as raã, typographic variant of rãa, earlier form of modern (frog)

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(wa, wae) (hangeul , , revised wa, wae, McCune–Reischauer wa, wae, Yale wa, way)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: oa

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.