U+844E, 葎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-844E

[U+844D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+844F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 廿竹人手 (THOQ), four-corner 44257, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1044, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31397
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1505, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3252, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+844E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (52)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwit̚/
Li
Rong
/liuĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/lĭuĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯uĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
leot6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15979
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*b·rud/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
花八重葎 (hana yae mugura): the “flowering eight-layer mugura”, field madder.
 
磯馴葎 (sonare mugura): the “pebble-accustomed mugura”, Hedyotis biflora.
 
金葎 (kana mugura): the “money mugura”, the Japanese hop plant.
 
刺無葎 (toge nashi mugura): the “thornless mugura”, false baby's breath.
Kanji in this term
むぐら
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Probably the eastern Japanese form. Compare the alternation in ugura and mugura readings in the etymology of 土竜.

May ultimately derive from obsolete verb 剥る (mukuru, to peel off, to tear off), perhaps related to the way that weeds are often removed by tearing the plant out.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(むぐら) (mugura

  1. any of various plants of order Gentianales or Urticales, that form thickets, often have thorns and form vines, and prefer wet or disturbed soils; generally regarded as weeds
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4270), text here:
      牟具良波布 / 伊也之伎屋戸母 / 大皇之 / 座牟等知者 / 玉之可麻思乎
      延ふ / 賎しき宿も / 大君の / 座さむと知らば / 玉敷かましを
      むぐら はふ / いやしき やど も / おほきみ の / まさむ と しらば / たま しかまし を
      Mugura hafu / iyashiki yado mo / ohokimi no / masamu to shiraba / tama shikamashi wo
      Even a shabby house surrounded by weed thickets would be as if strewn with jewels if I knew you were there
Usage notesEdit

The plants called by this name are many and varied, and include plants such as madder, cleaver, and hops.

The reading mugura appears to be the most common.

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where it is customary), as ムグラ.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
うぐら
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably the western Japanese form. Compare the alternation in ugura and mugura readings in the etymology of 土竜.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(うぐら) (ugura

  1. any of various plants of order Gentianales or Urticales, that form thickets, often have thorns and form vines, and prefer wet or disturbed soils; generally regarded as weeds

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
もぐら
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Probably an alteration or dialectal variant of mugura above. Appears with this reading in the 本草和名 (Honzō Wamyō, “Japanese Names of the Real Herbs”), a pharmacopoeia written in 923.[1] Still listed as an alternate reading in modern dictionaries.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(もぐら) (mogura

  1. Any of various plants of order Gentianales or Urticales, that form thickets, often have thorns and form vines, and prefer wet or disturbed soils; generally regarded as weeds
    • c. 918, Honzō Wamyō
      葎草 仁諝、音葎 一名葛律葛 出蘇敬注 一名葛勒蔓 出楕疑 和名毛久良

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • Fukane no Sukehito (c. 901–923), Maruyama Yumiko, Wu Qian, editors, Honzō Wamyō: Eiin, Honkoku to Kenkyū) (in Japanese), Kyūko Shoin, published 2021, →ISBN.