See also: and
U+5442, 呂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5442

[U+5441]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5443]
U+F980, 呂
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F980
勵
[U+F97F]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F981]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 30, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 口竹口 (RHR), four-corner 60600, composition 丿)

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 181, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3386
  • Dae Jaweon: page 398, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 577, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5442

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms spine
spine

Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) of two vertebrae.

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ra-t (bone) (STEDT).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • lū/lǐr/lī/līr - vernacular;
  • lú/lír/lí - literary.
Note:
  • 3li - vernacular;
  • 3ly - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ly²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ly²¹³/
    Tianjin /luei¹³/
    /ly¹³/
    Jinan /ly⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ly⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ly⁵³/
    Xi'an /ly⁵³/
    Xining /l̩ʷ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ly⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ly⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ly⁵¹/
    Wuhan /y⁴²/
    Chengdu /ny⁵³/
    Guiyang /ni⁴²/
    Kunming /luei⁵³/
    Nanjing /ly²¹²/
    Hefei /zz̩ʷ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ly⁵³/
    Pingyao /luei⁵³/
    Hohhot /ly⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ly²³/
    Suzhou /li³¹/
    Hangzhou /lz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /løy³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ly³⁵/
    Tunxi /li³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /li²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /li⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /li²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/
    Nanning /ly²⁴/
    Hong Kong /løy¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lu⁵³/
    /lu²²/
    Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ly³²/
    Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ly²¹/
    Shantou (Teochew) /lɯ³⁵/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /li³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ljoX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /liɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    leoi5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]aʔ/
    English spine; pitch-pipe

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8579
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·raʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions

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    1. (anatomy) spine
    2. (music) even-numbered notes in shí'èrlǜ
    3. , a state in China that existed in the early years of the Spring and Autumn Period
    4. a surname
        ―    ―  Bu (Chinese military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty)

    Descendants

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    • English: Lu, , Lui, Lv, Lyu, Loo, Luy, Lou, Lew

    Compounds

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    Japanese

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    Kanji

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    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. spine
    2. backbone

    Readings

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    Etymology

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    Kanji in this term
    せぼね
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    背骨せぼね
    [noun] [from late 1100s] backbone (series of vertebrae that encloses the spinal cord)
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean

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    Hanja

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    (eum (ryeo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese

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    Han character

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    : Hán Nôm readings: , lả, lỡ, lử, lữa, rả, rứa, trả, trở, lớ, lở, lữ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.