-τής

See also: της, τῆς, and -της

Ancient GreekEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Hellenic *-tās (whence also Mycenaean Greek 𐀑𐀴𐀲 (ki-ti-ta /ktitā(s)/, κτίτης)), probably a masculine formation from Proto-Indo-European *-teh₂ (perhaps still seen in Latin Monēta), feminine of *-tós. Originally used in adjectival compounds, the suffix's narrowing to agentivity may be by analogy to -τήρ (-tḗr) and -τωρ (-tōr).[1]

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

 

SuffixEdit

-τής (-tḗsm (genitive -τοῦ); first declension

  1. Appended to verbs to form agent nouns
    Βακχεύω (Bakkheúō, to keep the feast of Bacchus) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎Βακχευτής (Bakkheutḗs, a Bacchanal)
    ἀγρεύω (agreúō, to take by hunting) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ἀγρευτής (agreutḗs, a hunter)
    αἰχμή (aikhmḗ, a spear) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎αἰχμητής (aikhmētḗs, a spearman)
    αὐλέω (auléō, to play on the flute) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎αὐλητής (aulētḗs, a flute-player)
    πειράω (peiráō, to make an attempt on something) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎πειρατής (peiratḗs, a pirate, one who attacks ships)
    ποιέω (poiéō, to make) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ποιητής (poiētḗs, a maker)
    1. With -ίζω (-ízō) verbs:
      ἑλληνίζω (hellēnízō, to speak the Greek language) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎Ἑλληνιστής (Hellēnistḗs, one who uses the Greek language)
      Ἡρακλειτίζω (Hērakleitízō, to be a follower of Heraclitus) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎Ἡρακλειτιστής (Hērakleitistḗs, follower of Heraclitus)
      ἀγωνίζομαι (agōnízomai, to compete for a prize) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ἀγωνιστής (agōnistḗs, a competitor)
      βαπτίζω (baptízō, to dip in or under water) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎βαπτιστής (baptistḗs, one that dips, a baptizer)
      κιθαρίζω (kitharízō, to play the cithara) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎κιθαριστής (kitharistḗs, a player on the cithara) (compare with the analogous recent guitarist)
    2. With -άζω (-ázō) verbs:
      ἀγοράζω (agorázō, to buy in the agora) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ἀγοραστής (agorastḗs, the slave who bought provisions for the house)
      βιάζω (biázō, to use force) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎βιαστής (biastḗs, one who uses force)
      δικάζω (dikázō, to judge) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎δικαστής (dikastḗs, a judge)
      ἐνθουσιάζω (enthousiázō, to be inspired by god) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ἐνθουσιαστής (enthousiastḗs, one inspired by god)
      πελτάζω (peltázō, to serve as a targeteer) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎πελταστής (peltastḗs, one who bears a light shield, a targeteer)
    3. With -όζω (-ózō) verbs:
      ἁρμόζω (harmózō, to fit together) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎ἁρμοστής (harmostḗs, one who arranges or governs, a harmost)
    4. With -ύζω (-úzō) verbs:
      γογγύζω (gongúzō, to murmur) + ‎-τής (-tḗs) → ‎γογγυστής (gongustḗs, a murmurer)

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Latin: -tēs, -ta, -istēs, -ista, -astēs, -asta (see there for further descendants)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, § 267