See also: Appendix:Variations of "han"
- A particle to express that the speaker had some (more or less) certain view on something but is surprised after having got to know the truth about it.
- No tuohan meni hienosti!
- Hey, but that went well!
- A particle to express that the speaker had some (more or less) certain view on something but is surprised at the controversial view expressed by some other person.
- Olet kyllä turhaan masentunut opettajasi arvostelusta, sillä tuo maalaushan on aika hieno.
- You're sad about the teacher's criticism for no reason, since that painting is [emphasis] quite good.
- after all, in any case, although
- Onhan siitä jo kauan aikaa.
- It's been a long time since after all.
- A particle to express that the speaker has some view on something that they are willing to either confirm or question; attached to verbs, including the negative verb, and the word modified is sometimes repeated at the end of the sentence.
- Mutta eihän sellaista voi tapahtua, eihän?
- But such a thing cannot happen, right?
- A particle to express that the speaker is determined about or resistant towards something.
- Tässä talossahan määrään minä!
- Hey, I'm the one who keeps order in this house!
- Expresses a fact that the speaker either considers obvious, or at the very least known to both the speaker and the addressed, and worth reminding someone of.
- No senhän me jo kaikki tiesimme.
- Well we all already knew about it.
- A particle appended to an indicative (more rarely: conditional or potential) verb form in order to express the speaker's wish about something; also to politely ask someone to do something — i.e., to avoid the imperative.
- Laitoithan tiskikoneen käyntiin?
- I trust you started up the dishwasher?
- Katathan pöydän?
- Set the table, will you?
- Näytithän sinä valokuvat äidillesi?
- You (made sure you) showed the photos to your mother, didn't you?
- Softens a question for which the speaker expects the answer to be affirmative. Note: replaces -ko; compare definition below.
- Tunnethan sinä hänet?
- You know him/her, right?
- Expresses wondering in questions, usually with -ko / -kö, or used to simply make questions more polite.
- Pukeutuikohan hän tarpeeksi lämpimästi tänä aamuna?
- I wonder if he put enough clothes on this morning.
- With a negation verb form and the enclitic particle -ko / -kö to express "I suppose".
- Emmeköhän me jotenkuten tule toimeen.
- I suppose we'll get by somehow.
- Mitä(kö)hän on oikein tapahtunut?
- What on earth has actually happened, I wonder?
- A particle appended to a passive or first-person plural imperative verb to express an informal proposal or suggestion.
- Ollaanhan ystäviä!
- Let us be friends!
- Softens an imperative verb, causing it to behave more like a suggestion, such as a friendly suggestion or one where the speaker expects the person addressed to do so anyway.
- Tulkaahan sisään!
- Come on in!
- Otahan lisää kakkua!
- Have some more cake!
- Expresses disagreement, particularly in brief exclamations.
- Enhän tehnyt!
- No, I didn't do (it)!
- Expresses that the speaker is suggesting an idea that they just came up with; in this case, the clitic always attaches to the subject that must be the first word in the clause, and is often used with verbs in conditional mood.
- Mehän voisimme aloittaa sitä.
- We could start with that.
- As seen above, this particle is used in subjective expressions or opinions and thus especially in spoken language. It can, depending on the context, have several meanings that, in English, can usually be expressed only by accentuating the words differently or by adding extra words.
- Note also that this particle is very often attached to the first or the second word of the clause.
- In everyday speech, this particle is used quite often even if there were no intention to give some special tone.
- Alternative form of (the case suffix for illative singular case)
- -kaan / -kään
- -hän (the same particle in words with front vowel harmony)
- -ko / -kö
- -pa / -pä
- Rōmaji transcription of