Basque edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -eko (after consonants)
  • -go (see usage notes)

Etymology edit

Unknown.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ko

  1. Locative singular suffix.
    etxe (house) + ‎-ko → ‎etxeko (of the house, related to the house)
  2. Noun-forming suffix with various functions.
    1. related to, near
      gerri (waist) + ‎-ko → ‎gerriko (belt)
      belarri (ear) + ‎-ko → ‎belarritako (earring)
    2. Forms words expressing a hit or strike
  3. Forms future participles.
    egin (to do) + ‎-ko → ‎egingo (will do)

Usage notes edit

  • The case formed by this suffix is also called "local genitive" or "locative genitive". It roughly corresponds to the usage of the prepositions of in English and de in Spanish. The genitive case (formed by the suffix -ren) also corresponds generally to these prepositions; but is mostly used to imply ownership, while the locative implies location or relatedness. However, there are exceptions to this general rule, see the usage examples below.
    Bizkaiko mendiakthe mountains of Biscay
    buruko minaheadache (literally, “pain of the head”)
    eskolako jaialdiaschool festival
    Picassoren margolan bata painting by Picasso
    Ilargiaren orbitathe orbit of the Moon
    mutilaren argazkiathe picture of (owned by) the boy; the picture of (showing) the boy
  • Common nouns ending in a consonant take the form -eko with an epenthetic vowel.
    hondartz (beach) + ‎-ko → ‎hondartzeko (of the beach).
  • Proper nouns and verbs ending /n/ or /l/ take the voiced form -go.
    Madril (Madrid) + ‎-ko → ‎Madrilgo (of Madrid).

Declension edit

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ -ko” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ko n (noun-forming suffix)

  1. forms diminutive nouns
    ef + ‎-ko → ‎efko
    oko + ‎-ko → ‎očko
    zrno + ‎-ko → ‎zrnko

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • -ko in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-ko, probably ultimately from Proto-Uralic *ko-.

Particle edit

-ko (front vowel harmony variant -kö, linguistic notation -kO) (enclitic particle)

  1. (enclitic) Turns a clause interrogative. It is appended to the element of the clause that is questioned most. English equivalents include the normal ways of forming an interrogative statement without using an interrogative pronoun, such as the verb "do", inversion of the word order and intonation.
    Onko hän täällä? (on > + -ko)
    Is s/he here?
    Täällä hän on? (täällä + -kö)
    Is s/he here?
    Tuleeko hän laivalla? (tulee > + -ko)
    Is she coming by the ship?
    Millä sitten - veneellä? (veneellä + -kö)
    By what, then - on the boat?
    Näkee hän? (näkee > + -kö)
    Does s/he see?
    Pitäisi hänen tulla tänne? (pitäisi > + -kö)
    Should s/he come here?
  2. (enclitic) In indirect questions, -ko/-kö appended to the verb corresponds to the conjunctions if and whether in English.
    En tiedä, tuleeko hän.
    I don't know if she comes.
    En tiedä, näkee hän.
    I don't know if she sees.
  3. (enclitic) With the particle -han/-hän attached to the topic of discussion, it expresses "I wonder if".
    Pukeutuikohan hän tarpeeksi lämpimästi tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he put enough clothes on this morning.
    Menihän hän kouluun tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he went to school this morning.
  4. (enclitic) With the negative verb (en, et, ei, emme, ette, eivät) and the particle -han/-hän, expresses "I suppose".
    Emmehän me jotenkuten tule toimeen.
    I suppose we'll get by somehow.
  5. (enclitic, colloquial) In a question with an interrogative word.
    Olikko millon tulossa käymään?
    When are you coming by here?

Usage notes edit

  • (interrogative particle): The particle -ko/-kö is used when there is no other interrogative word, in both direct and indirect questions. The answer is expected to be simply affirmative or negative.
  • (interrogative particle): The word with this particle will usually move to the beginning of the clause (see the usage examples).
  • (I wonder if): Note that, unlike in English, the sentence meaning "I wonder if" is an interrogative sentence in Finnish, so it ends with a question mark.

Synonyms edit

  • -ks (colloquial)

See also edit

Garo edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-ko

  1. (inflectional suffix) forms the accusative case

See also edit

  • -ni (forms genitive)
  • -na (forms dative)
  • -chi (forms instrumental)
  • -no (forms locative)

Hadza edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ko

  1. a feminine singular suffix (often used with a collective sense)

Related terms edit

Ilocano edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -kbefore vowels and suffixes -en and -an

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ku, from Proto-Austronesian *ku.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

-ko

  1. First-person singular ergative enclitic pronoun; I
    Inlukatko ti tawa ta napudot.I opened the window because it is hot.
    Aramidekto dayta no bigat.I'll do that tomorrow.
  2. First-person singular possessive marker; my
    Daytoy ti pamiliak.This is my family.
    Annakko dagitoy.These are my children.

Usage notes edit

  • When attached to verbs ending with the suffixes -en or -an, the n of the suffix is dropped and the enclitic (in the form -k) is attached.
    lutuen (to cook) + ‎-k(o) → ‎lutuek (I cook)
    dalusan (to clean) + ‎-k(o) → ‎dalusak (I clean)
  • When attached to the enclitic -(e)n, the pronoun becomes -kon, even if the enclitic is in the form -k.
    Linutok ti ikan.I cooked the fish.
    Linutokon ti ikan.I already cooked the fish.
  • When attached to the negative adverb di, the pronoun becomes -ak.
    Diak inggagara.I did not mean it.
  • When attached to the verb in (to go), the n geminates, and the pronoun becomes -ak.
    Innak kitaen no addadan.I'll go check if they are already there.

See also edit

Ingrian edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

-ko (front-vowel variant -kö)

  1. Alternative form of -k
    • 1936, D. I. Efimov, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 12:
      Töö-ko meille avita.
      Come help us.

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 178

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *-ъko.

Suffix edit

-ko n

  1. added to neuter nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms edit

Makasar edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *(i-)kahu, Proto-Austronesian *(i-)kaSu.

Pronoun edit

-ko (absolutive enclitic, Lontara spelling ᨀᨚ)

  1. you (familiar second person singualr and plural)

See also edit

Murui Huitoto edit

Pronunciation edit

Classifier edit

-ko

  1. Classifier for objects that give cover.
  2. Classifier for spherical containers.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[1], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), pages 195-196

Nupe edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-kó

  1. augmentative suffix; used to form nouns meaning a larger form of something.
    Antonym: -gi
    èsá (stool) + ‎-ko → ‎èsákó (table)
    yàbà (banana) + ‎-ko → ‎yàbàkó (plantain)
    ǹdá (father) + ‎-ko → ‎ǹdákó (grandfather)
    bànban (river bank) + ‎-ko → ‎bànbankó (cliff)
    tákùn (rock) + ‎-ko → ‎tákùnkó (large rock)
  2. Used to form a nominalised and superlative form of verbs.
    wáncí (to be large) + ‎-ko → ‎wáncíkó (the largest)
    pàrà (to be wide) + ‎-ko → ‎pàràkó (the widest)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • Alhaji, Gabra Ibrahim A Morphological Analysis of Nouns and Adjectives In The Nupe Language, 2012

Old Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-kъ.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ko n

  1. diminutive suffix for neuter nouns; may cause various vowel shifts

Derived terms edit

Polish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish -ko.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /kɔ/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: ko

Suffix edit

-ko n

  1. diminutive suffix for neuter nouns. May cause various vowel shifts
    słowo + ‎-ko → ‎słówko

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Suffix edit

-ko (Cyrillic spelling -ко)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, most likely to make diminutive. Usually used to make names, or nicknames denoting a negative feature.
    dar + ‎-ko → ‎Darko
    Jano + ‎-ko → ‎Janko
    debeo + ‎-ko → ‎debeljko (fatty (meant as an insult))

Slovak edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ko n

  1. diminutive suffix for neuter nouns

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Swahili edit

Suffix edit

-ko

  1. ku class(XVII) relative marker, where
    Sijui wanakotoka.I do not know where they come from.

See also edit