Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *hän, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *sän.[1] Cognates include Erzya сон (son).

In practically all dialects (except potentially Ingrian Finnish), se is the most common third-person pronoun for people, and this is also reflected in colloquial Finnish. hän was most often used in indirect speech (as a logophoric pronoun), although in northern and eastern dialects it was used more widely in subordinate clauses.[1] The use of hän as a general third-person pronoun may thus be a literary feature.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈhæn/, [ˈhæn]
  • Audio:(file)
  • Audio:(file)
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -æn
  • Syllabification(key): hän

Pronoun edit

hän

  1. (personal) he, she, one, (singular) they (only of a human being; the pronoun does not determine the sex/gender of the person)
  2. he, she, one, they, it (in indirect speech: referring to the subject of the main clause, regardless of whether they are a human being or not, i.e. logophoric pronoun)

Usage notes edit

  • In standard Finnish, hän is generally not omitted, despite the verb showing both the person and the number (compare the usage of he (they pl)). This is in contrast to the first and second person pronouns which may freely be omitted, with the person being implied by the verb form.
  • In colloquial and dialectal Finnish, the inanimate (demonstrative) pronoun se is mostly used instead of hän, the latter being reserved for certain particular uses such as to indicate that another speaker is being paraphrased. Yet in some others (such as Kven), both pronouns are used in the same role.

Declension edit

  • Irregular. The comitative and instructive forms don't exist; the abessive is hardly used. To be more precise: the singular stem is declined like type 32 (sisar) in the singular cases, except for the accusative singular form hänet (see following note).
  • In addition to the standard set of cases, hän and the other personal pronouns have a specific accusative form, hänet. This form would have been the nominative plural form of the first stem, if the word were not a personal pronoun.
  • The shorter forms hällä, hältä and hälle exist for the adessive, ablative and allative respectively, but these are dated or jocular except in poetic use and some set phrases.

Synonyms edit

  • se (colloquial)

Derived terms edit

compounds

Descendants edit

  • Kven: hän

See also edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Junttila, Santeri, Kallio, Petri, Holopainen, Sampsa, Kuokkala, Juha, Pystynen, Juho, editors (2020–), “hän”, in Suomen vanhimman sanaston etymologinen verkkosanakirja[1] (in Finnish), retrieved 2024-01-01

Further reading edit

Ingrian edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

hän

  1. (dialectal) Alternative form of hää
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 46:
      Toisille hän lapsille esimerkin näyttää.
      He sets an example for the other children.

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 84

Kven edit

Etymology edit

From Finnish hän, from Proto-Finnic *hän.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

hän

  1. he, she (animate)

Declension edit

Synonyms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Eira Söderholm (2017) Kvensk grammatikk, Tromsø: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, →ISBN, page 276

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse héðan, with influence from Middle Low German hen (away), both ultimately related to Proto-Germanic *hiz (this).

Adverb edit

hän

  1. (often somewhat solemn) away, hence (and often by implication to somewhere else)
    Han gick hän
    He walked away/hence (also a euphemism for died)
    Vi åkte hän till Säffle
    We went away/hence to Säffle (redundant, somewhat poetic or jocular)
    Hän mot nya mål!
    Away towards new goals!

Synonyms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

Veps edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *hän, from Proto-Finno-Ugric *sän. Cognate to Hungarian ő. False cognate with Swedish han.

Pronoun edit

hän (genitive hänen, partitive händast)

  1. he, she

Inflection edit

Inflection of hän
nominative sing. hän
genitive sing. hänen
partitive sing. händast
partitive plur. heid
singular plural
nominative hän
accusative hänen
genitive hänen heiden
partitive händast heid
essive-instructive
translative
inessive hänes heiš
elative hänespäi heišpäi
illative hänehe heihe
adessive hänel heil
ablative hänelpäi heilpäi
allative hänele heile
abessive häneta heita
comitative hänenke heidenke
prolative
approximative I
approximative II
egressive
terminative I
terminative II
terminative III
additive I
additive II

References edit

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “он”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika