Words with prefixes and suffixes can be found by looking up their roots. If you do not know the root of a word, you can find it by choosing its prefix on the list below and looking for it there.
Variations: be- (if the root word starts with letter "r").
Forms a verb that often means "being something, having something, having a certain attribute" or "indicating a state of being or condition". For example the root word 'nilai' have a general meaning of 'value', thus the verb bernilai have a meaning of verb 'to have a value' or 'valuable' adjective. The adjective 'bahaya' means 'danger', 'berbahaya' means 'to be dangerous', having a dangerous value.
- Tumbuhan itu berbahaya untuk dimakan - That plant is dangerous to eat
- Joko adalah lelaki yang beragama - Joko is a religious (having a religion) man
Forms a verb indicating the passive voice, where the main focus of the sentence is on the action or the object of the action. Almost always translated into -ed suffix in English - often corresponds to to be + verb + -ed, but not necessarily. 'larang' (prohibit), 'dilarang' (prohibited).
- Dia ditunjuk menjadi kepala sekolah setelah rapat para guru - He is appointed to be principal after teachers' meeting
Only used as a confix. See ke-an under confixes below.
Variations: me-, men-, mem-, meny- (depend on the first letter of the root word):
- men-: c (caci - mencaci), d (daki - mendaki), j (jadi - menjadi), t (tepi - menepi, first letter disappears)
- mem-: b (beri - memberi), f, p (punya - mempunyai, sometimes the first letter disappears), v (validasi, memvalidasi)
- meny-: s (sapu - menyapu, first letter disappears)
- meng-: a, e, g, h, i, k, o, u
- me-: l, m, n, r, w
Variations: pe-, pen-, pem-, peny- (depend on the first letter of the root word):
- pen-: c (cari - pencari), d (daki - pendaki), j (jilat - penjilat), t (tikung - penikung, first letter disappears)
- pem-: b (beri - pemberi), f, p (pisah - pemisah, sometimes the first letter disappears), v
- peny-: s (sapu - penyapu, first letter disappears)
- peng-: a, e, g, h, i, k, o, u
- pe-: l, m, n, r, w
- + noun: forms a noun that indicates a person, agent or thing that has the character of the root word.
- + adjective: forms a noun that indicates a person or thing that has the quality or attribute inherent in the adjective root word.
- with '-an' suffix: forms a noun referring to a process in the sense of a noun.
It can forms words that indicate a singularity, and the words sometimes are used for measurement (measure words). For example, 'buah' (fruit) becomes 'sebuah' (a fruit, one fruit) which is used for expressing oneness: 'sebuah kursi' (one chair). It's also used to express similarity or being at the same situation as the attached word.
- sepenuh (“entirely”)
- sepenuh hati ("wholeheartedly")
- sebesar (“as big as”)
- selanjutnya (“the next”)
- menunggu pemberitahuan selanjutnya ("waiting for further notice")
Variations: te- (if the root word starts with letter "r")
The ke-an confix is used on verbs and adjectives to create nouns. Here are some examples
|Root Word||Meaning||Ke-an Form||Meaning|
the ke-an confix can also be used to indicate one is suffering from or to indicate an excessiveness of the noun created.
|Ia mulai bergetar karena kedinginan.||She is starting to shiver because she is freezing.|
|Kehausan itu cara kematian buruk sekali.||Dehydration (suffering from thirst) is a very bad way to die.|
|Kapan makanan akan siap? Saya kelaparan.||When will the food be ready? I'm starving.|
|Mangkuk ini kebesaran.||This bowl is too big.|
Variations: pem-an, pen-an, peng-an; penge-an, peny-an (depend on the first letter of the root word)
Forms a noun that often refers to a circumstance referred to by the root word or the result of the action of the verb in the sentence. May also indicate a place or location.