First attested 1584 in the (now obsolete) spelling Esquimawe, from French Esquimaux (“Eskimos (plural)”), from Spanish esquimao, esquimal (used by Basque fishermen in Labrador), from Old Montagnais ayaškimew (“snowshoe-netter”); compare Montagnais assime·w (“she laces a snowshoe”), Cree asâm (“snowshoe”); compare also Ojibwe aagimike (“she or he makes snowshoes”). The name was originally applied by the Innu people to the Mi'kmaq and later transferred to the Labrador Inuit; see the usage notes below.
The Montagnais term was once thought to have meant "eaters of raw meat", but this has been discredited and is now dismissed by most authorities.
- A group of indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic, from Siberia, through Alaska and Northern Canada, to Greenland, including the Inuit and Yupik.
- Any of the languages of the Eskimo.
- Eskimo has come to be considered offensive, especially in Canada. However, it remains an acceptable term for northern peoples in Alaska—including the Inuit Inupiat and the non-Inuit Yupik—and the only encompassing term for all of these Arctic peoples. It is also used worldwide by historians and archaeologists. The name declined in use because it was thought to stem from a Cree pejorative meaning “eaters of raw meat” rather than from the Inuit people's name for themselves, but this etymology is now discredited (and in fact, both the Cree and Inuit ate raw meat).
- In Canada, Eskimo has been superseded by Inuit for the people, with that term having official status, and Inuktitut for the language. The Inuit group of Canada's Western Arctic call themselves Inuvialuit. Greenland natives also call themselves Greenlanders or Kalaallit, and their language Greenlandic or Kalaallisut.
- Eskimo does not include the related Aleut people (Unangam).
- Indigenous Alaskans find this term's official usages too imprecise in grouping their various groups and prefer to use "Alaska Native" in official uses for the peoples, as the prior use of "Eskimo" applied to all non-Amerind indigenous groups.
Eskimo (plural Eskimo or Eskimos)
- A member of any of the Eskimo peoples.
- Of or relating to the Eskimo peoples.
- In, of, or relating to the Eskimo languages.
- “Eskimo” in the Katherine Barker, editor, Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd edition, Don Mills, Ont.; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-541816-3.
- “Eskimo” in Dictionary.com Unabridged: Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–.
- “Eskimo” in the The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005
- “Eskimo” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2017.
- “Eskimo” and “Origin of the name Eskimo” in Wikipedia
- Eskimo (person)
- the Eskimo language (group)
Eskimo m (plural Eskimos)
- an Eskimo
- eskimo (adjective)