This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Etymology 1Edit

Formally appears to be a thematicized variant of Proto-Indo-European *-lós.

Kroonen (2017) instead derives this from the Proto-Indo-European *-trom family of instrumental nominal suffixes, specifically the lambdacized variants Proto-Indo-European *-dʰlom and Proto-Indo-European *-tlom. The former suffix and the voiced Verner's alternant of the latter would undergo an assimilation to *-lla-. The geminate consonant would have later shortened to make *-la- which was suffixed onto stems with *-yeti, forming the Germanic agent suffix. [1]



  1. agent suffix
Derived termsEdit

  • Old English: -el, -ol, -ul
  • Old Frisian:
    • West Frisian: -el
  • Old Saxon: -al, -il
    • Middle Low German: -el
      • Low German: -el
  • Old Dutch:
  • Old High German:
  • Old Norse: -ill m, -la f
    • Faroese: -il m

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-elo-, thematized from Proto-Indo-European *-lós.



  1. diminutive suffix
Derived termsEdit



  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2017) , “The development of the Proto-Indo-European instrumental suffix in Germanic”, in Indogermanische Forschungen[1], volume 122, issue 1, DOI:10.1515/if-2017-0005, ISSN 0019-7262, pages 105-110