English edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -elen, -len, -lien, from Old English -lian (frequentative verbal suffix), from Proto-West Germanic *-lōn, from Proto-Germanic *-lōną (frequentative verbal suffix).

Cognate with West Frisian -elje, Dutch -elen, German -eln, Danish -le, Swedish -la, Icelandic -la. Compare -er.

Suffix edit

-le

  1. A frequentative suffix of verbs, indicating repetition or continuousness:
    assle, buzzle, crackle, cuddle, dazzle, draggle, drawl, dribble, drizzle, fumble, gamble, grapple, handle, jostle, kissle, maddle, mingle, nestle, nuzzle, prattle, ramble, rattle, ripple, scribble, sile, sizzle, smartle, sniffle, snuggle, startle, stopple, suckle, tattle, tickle, topple, waggle, whemmle, wiggle, wrestle
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -el, -le (adjectival), from Old English -el, -ol, from Proto-Germanic *-ulaz and *-ilaz (adjective suffixes). Cognate with West Frisian -el, Dutch -el, Low German -el, German -el, Icelandic -ill.

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Forming adjectives from verbs with the meaning of "prone to", "tending to", "apt to", "capable of"; compare -ative:
    battle, breakle, brittle, fickle, forgettle, little, newfangle, nimble, wankle

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English -el (agent suffix), from a combination of two suffixes:

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Forming diminutives from other nouns.
    Coordinate term: -ling
    dump + ‎-le → ‎dimple
    dung + ‎-le → ‎dingle
    hatch + ‎-le → ‎hatchel
    hose + ‎-le → ‎hosel
    howf + ‎-le → ‎hovel
    gome + ‎-le → ‎gomeral
    corn + ‎-le → ‎kernel
    new + ‎-le → ‎newel
    nose + ‎-le → ‎nozzle
    puck + ‎-le → ‎puckle
    turd + ‎-le → ‎treddle
  2. Forming agent nouns from verbs:
    beadle, beetle, bridle, bundle, cripple, fettle, girdle, ladle, losel, runnel, shovel, spindle, spittle, steeple, stile, stopple, thimble, tool, towel, trundle
Derived terms edit

Unsorted:

Anagrams edit

Basque edit

Alternative forms edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Forms agent noun from verbs.
    ikasi (study) + ‎-le → ‎ikasle (student)

Usage notes edit

  • It is used with verbs ending in -i preceded by a sibilant or -r(r)-. If the sibilant is an affricate, it is reduced to a fricative.
    idatzi (write) + ‎-le → ‎idazle (writer)
    irakatsi (teach) + ‎-le → ‎irakasle (teacher)
    irakurri (read) + ‎-le → ‎irakurle (reader)
  • For other verbs the alternative form -tzaile is used.

Derived terms edit

Cimbrian edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. forms diminutives

Derived terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology 1 edit

-l(a) +‎ -e

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /-leˣ/, [-le̞(ʔ)]

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Forms diminutive nouns.
Declension edit
Inflection of -le (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -le -leet
genitive -leen -leiden
-leitten
partitive -letta -leita
illative -leeseen -leisiin
-leihin
singular plural
nominative -le -leet
accusative nom. -le -leet
gen. -leen
genitive -leen -leiden
-leitten
partitive -letta -leita
inessive -leessa -leissa
elative -leesta -leista
illative -leeseen -leisiin
-leihin
adessive -leella -leilla
ablative -leelta -leilta
allative -leelle -leille
essive -leena -leina
translative -leeksi -leiksi
abessive -leetta -leitta
instructive -lein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -le (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -leeni -leeni
accusative nom. -leeni -leeni
gen. -leeni
genitive -leeni -leideni
-leitteni
partitive -lettani -leitani
inessive -leessani -leissani
elative -leestani -leistani
illative -leeseeni -leisiini
-leihini
adessive -leellani -leillani
ablative -leeltani -leiltani
allative -leelleni -leilleni
essive -leenani -leinani
translative -leekseni -leikseni
abessive -leettani -leittani
instructive
comitative -leineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -leesi -leesi
accusative nom. -leesi -leesi
gen. -leesi
genitive -leesi -leidesi
-leittesi
partitive -lettasi -leitasi
inessive -leessasi -leissasi
elative -leestasi -leistasi
illative -leeseesi -leisiisi
-leihisi
adessive -leellasi -leillasi
ablative -leeltasi -leiltasi
allative -leellesi -leillesi
essive -leenasi -leinasi
translative -leeksesi -leiksesi
abessive -leettasi -leittasi
instructive
comitative -leinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -leemme -leemme
accusative nom. -leemme -leemme
gen. -leemme
genitive -leemme -leidemme
-leittemme
partitive -lettamme -leitamme
inessive -leessamme -leissamme
elative -leestamme -leistamme
illative -leeseemme -leisiimme
-leihimme
adessive -leellamme -leillamme
ablative -leeltamme -leiltamme
allative -leellemme -leillemme
essive -leenamme -leinamme
translative -leeksemme -leiksemme
abessive -leettamme -leittamme
instructive
comitative -leinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -leenne -leenne
accusative nom. -leenne -leenne
gen. -leenne
genitive -leenne -leidenne
-leittenne
partitive -lettanne -leitanne
inessive -leessanne -leissanne
elative -leestanne -leistanne
illative -leeseenne -leisiinne
-leihinne
adessive -leellanne -leillanne
ablative -leeltanne -leiltanne
allative -leellenne -leillenne
essive -leenanne -leinanne
translative -leeksenne -leiksenne
abessive -leettanne -leittanne
instructive
comitative -leinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -leensa -leensa
accusative nom. -leensa -leensa
gen. -leensa
genitive -leensa -leidensa
-leittensa
partitive -lettaan
-lettansa
-leitaan
-leitansa
inessive -leessaan
-leessansa
-leissaan
-leissansa
elative -leestaan
-leestansa
-leistaan
-leistansa
illative -leeseensa -leisiinsa
-leihinsa
adessive -leellaan
-leellansa
-leillaan
-leillansa
ablative -leeltaan
-leeltansa
-leiltaan
-leiltansa
allative -leelleen
-leellensa
-leilleen
-leillensa
essive -leenaan
-leenansa
-leinaan
-leinansa
translative -leekseen
-leeksensa
-leikseen
-leiksensa
abessive -leettaan
-leettansa
-leittaan
-leittansa
instructive
comitative -leineen
-leinensa
Inflection of -le (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -le -leet
genitive -leen -leiden
-leitten
partitive -lettä -leitä
illative -leeseen -leisiin
-leihin
singular plural
nominative -le -leet
accusative nom. -le -leet
gen. -leen
genitive -leen -leiden
-leitten
partitive -lettä -leitä
inessive -leessä -leissä
elative -leestä -leistä
illative -leeseen -leisiin
-leihin
adessive -leellä -leillä
ablative -leeltä -leiltä
allative -leelle -leille
essive -leenä -leinä
translative -leeksi -leiksi
abessive -leettä -leittä
instructive -lein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -le (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -leeni -leeni
accusative nom. -leeni -leeni
gen. -leeni
genitive -leeni -leideni
-leitteni
partitive -lettäni -leitäni
inessive -leessäni -leissäni
elative -leestäni -leistäni
illative -leeseeni -leisiini
-leihini
adessive -leelläni -leilläni
ablative -leeltäni -leiltäni
allative -leelleni -leilleni
essive -leenäni -leinäni
translative -leekseni -leikseni
abessive -leettäni -leittäni
instructive
comitative -leineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -leesi -leesi
accusative nom. -leesi -leesi
gen. -leesi
genitive -leesi -leidesi
-leittesi
partitive -lettäsi -leitäsi
inessive -leessäsi -leissäsi
elative -leestäsi -leistäsi
illative -leeseesi -leisiisi
-leihisi
adessive -leelläsi -leilläsi
ablative -leeltäsi -leiltäsi
allative -leellesi -leillesi
essive -leenäsi -leinäsi
translative -leeksesi -leiksesi
abessive -leettäsi -leittäsi
instructive
comitative -leinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -leemme -leemme
accusative nom. -leemme -leemme
gen. -leemme
genitive -leemme -leidemme
-leittemme
partitive -lettämme -leitämme
inessive -leessämme -leissämme
elative -leestämme -leistämme
illative -leeseemme -leisiimme
-leihimme
adessive -leellämme -leillämme
ablative -leeltämme -leiltämme
allative -leellemme -leillemme
essive -leenämme -leinämme
translative -leeksemme -leiksemme
abessive -leettämme -leittämme
instructive
comitative -leinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -leenne -leenne
accusative nom. -leenne -leenne
gen. -leenne
genitive -leenne -leidenne
-leittenne
partitive -lettänne -leitänne
inessive -leessänne -leissänne
elative -leestänne -leistänne
illative -leeseenne -leisiinne
-leihinne
adessive -leellänne -leillänne
ablative -leeltänne -leiltänne
allative -leellenne -leillenne
essive -leenänne -leinänne
translative -leeksenne -leiksenne
abessive -leettänne -leittänne
instructive
comitative -leinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -leensä -leensä
accusative nom. -leensä -leensä
gen. -leensä
genitive -leensä -leidensä
-leittensä
partitive -lettään
-lettänsä
-leitään
-leitänsä
inessive -leessään
-leessänsä
-leissään
-leissänsä
elative -leestään
-leestänsä
-leistään
-leistänsä
illative -leeseensä -leisiinsä
-leihinsä
adessive -leellään
-leellänsä
-leillään
-leillänsä
ablative -leeltään
-leeltänsä
-leiltään
-leiltänsä
allative -leelleen
-leellensä
-leilleen
-leillensä
essive -leenään
-leenänsä
-leinään
-leinänsä
translative -leekseen
-leeksensä
-leikseen
-leiksensä
abessive -leettään
-leettänsä
-leittään
-leittänsä
instructive
comitative -leineen
-leinensä
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the main entry.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /-leˣ/, [-le̞(ʔ)]

Suffix edit

-le (dialectal)

  1. Alternative form of -lle.
    • 1878, J. Krohn, Kertomuksia Suomen Historiasta, →ISBN:
      Keisarilainen sotawoima riensi kaupungile awuksi ja ankara tappelu syttyi sen likellä.
      The imperial military came in haste to aid the town, and violent combat erupted near it.
    • 1996, Rosa Liksom, Kreisland, →ISBN:
      Siinä nirppanokkanen kotifrouva istu kiitävässä avoautossa ja sano J. Edgar Hooverin näkselle miehele: »Tämä on unta.»
      There sat a stuck up housewife in a dashing convertible and said to a man that looked like J. Edgar Hoover: "This is a dream."

German edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German -elīn, -līn, from Old High German -ilī, -ilīn.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [lə]
  • (file)

Suffix edit

-le

  1. (chiefly dialectal) suffix used to create a diminutive form; e.g., HausHäusle

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Ingrian edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -lee

Italian edit

Pronoun edit

-le

  1. (enclitic) Alternative form of le
    dare (to give)darle (to give them; to give for her)
    vendere (to sell)venderle (to sell them; to sell to her)
    servire (to serve)servirle (to serve them; to serve to her)

Usage notes edit

  • Appended to present active infinitive verb forms to derive accusative forms when the object is third plural feminine person and the dative form when the object is third singular feminine person. The final -e of the original infinitive is removed :
-are-arle
-ere-erle
-ire-irle

Where the verb ends in -rre, the final re is removed, leaving behind just an -r:

introdurre (to introduce)introdurle (to introduce them; to insert in her)

In any case, after the suffixation, there is only a single r and no vowels immediately before -le.

Anagrams edit

Latin edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. vocative masculine singular of -lus

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -el (adjectival suffix)

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -el (agentive suffix)

Etymology 3 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -el (diminutive suffix)

Etymology 4 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -ly (adjectival)

Etymology 5 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. Alternative form of -ly (adverbial)

Mwan edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. nominalising suffix

Romanian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Latin -ae (first-declension ending), with intrusive l.

Suffix edit

-le

  1. (in the plural) -s (feminine/neuter)
Usage notes edit
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for feminine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases which end in a stressed vowel, or is monosyllabic:
  • zile, from zi, fem.
  • basmale, from basma, fem.
  • cafele, from cafe, fem.
Alternative forms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Latin ille.

Suffix edit

-le

  1. variant of -l: the (definite article)
Usage notes edit

This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter singular nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in -e:

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Latin illae, nominative feminine plural of ille.

Suffix edit

-le

  1. (definite article) the (feminine/neuter plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes edit

This form of the definite article is used for both feminine and neuter plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases

Note that this suffix is also added to indefinite feminine plurals in -le:

The suffix is also used with feminine plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related terms edit
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Scots edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -el, -le, from Old English -el, -ol (adjective suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ulaz (adjective suffix).

Suffix edit

-le

  1. used for forming adjectives signifying 'having a tendency to' or 'able to'; e.g. forgettle, smittle, fodgle

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-le

  1. a contracted form of full; e.g. cairtle (cartful, cart-load), cogle (bowlful)

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English -elen, -len, -lien, from Old English -lian (frequentative verbal suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-lōną (frequentative verbal suffix).

Suffix edit

-le

  1. frequentative or diminutive suffix, added to verbs
  2. forms adverbs implying direction towards

Swabian edit

Etymology edit

Compare Yiddish־ל(-l).

Suffix edit

-le n

  1. Used to form diminutives.

Turkish edit

Etymology 1 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
-la -le

-le

  1. Suffix appended to nouns to derive verbs with various meanings.
    alkış (applause) + ‎la → ‎alkışlamak (to applaude)
    temiz (clean) + ‎-le → ‎temizlemek (to clean)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From ile.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -la -le
postvocalic -yla -yle

-le

  1. with, shortened form of ile
    annemle okula gidiyorum
    I am going to school with my mother
  2. by, shortened form of ile
    Okula otobüsle gidiyorum
    I am going to school by bus
Usage notes edit
  • If it's added to a proper noun, it must be used with an apostrophe.
    Zafer'le - with Zafer.
    Emre'yle - with Emre.
  • Unlike most Turkish suffixes, this suffix is always unstressed; the stress in the combined word remains where it was in the word before suffixing.
Derived terms edit