English

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Middle English -el, from Old English -el, from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz.

Alternative forms

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Suffix forming nouns, originally denoting an instrument, from verbs, usually spelt -le except after n and e.
    runnel, shovel, dotel
  2. Diminutive suffix in words of Germanic origin.
    hatchel, hovel, gomeral

Etymology 2

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From Middle English -el, a merger of two suffixes:

Suffix

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-el

  1. Suffix, originally diminutive, in words of mostly Romance origin.
    cupel, chapel, tunnel
Derived terms
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Anagrams

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Abenaki

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Used on verbs, together with the prefix k-, to indicate that the first person singular (I) is the actor and the second person singular (you) is the object of the verb.
    n'kezalmô
    I love
    k'kezalmel
    I love you (singular)

Usage notes

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The suffix is spelled -ol by some writers.

See also

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Breton

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Etymology

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Cf. French -el (e.g. sexuel, individuel, industriel)

Suffix

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-el

  1. To make an adjective of a noun; -al
    broad (nation) + ‎-el → ‎broadel (national)

Derived terms

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Czech

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el f (noun-forming suffix)

  1. forms nouns
    koupat + ‎-el → ‎koupel

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -el in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Danish

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. -al

Derived terms

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Dutch

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Etymology

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From Old Dutch *-el, from Proto-West Germanic *-il, from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term. probably more than one etymology involved

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. A now-unproductive suffix forming diminutive and instrument nouns.

Derived terms

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Esperanto

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Pronunciation

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  • Audio:(file)

Suffix

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-el

  1. in [...] way
    -el is the ending for correlatives of manner or degree

Derived terms

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  • kiel (in what way, in what manner, how)
  • tiel (in that way, in that manner, thus)
  • ĉiel (in every way, in every manner)
  • iel (in some way, in some manner, somehow)
  • neniel (in no way, nohow)
  • (nonce) aliel (in another way, somehow else)

Franco-Provençal

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Pronoun

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-el (ORB large)

  1. postpositive form of el

References

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  • -el in Lo trèsor Arpitan – on arpitan.eu

French

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old French -el, from Latin -ālis. Doublet of -al.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el (feminine -elle, masculine plural -els, feminine plural -elles)

  1. forms adjectives from nouns: -al

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Danish: -el
  • Dutch: -eel
    • Afrikaans: -eel
    • Indonesian: -il
  • German: -ell
  • Norwegian Bokmål: -ell
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: -ell
  • Swedish: -ell
  • Turkish: -el (learned)
  • Yiddish: ־על (-el)

See also

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German

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Etymology

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From Middle High German -el, from Old High German -il, direct descendant of Proto-West Germanic *-il, from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz, or from dialectal variants of -lein, which as well ultimately go back to *-ilaz or to *-ilingaz.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. suffix in diminutives
    Kind (child) + ‎-el → ‎Kindel (little child, darling)
    Haus (house) + ‎-el → ‎Häusel (little house)
  2. suffix in nouns indicating appurtenance
    Arm (arm) + ‎-el → ‎Ärmel (sleeve)
    Eiche (oak) + ‎-el → ‎Eichel (acorn)
  3. suffix in agent and instrumental nouns
    Büttel, Meißel

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -el” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Hungarian

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Etymology

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From -e- +‎ -l.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. (personal suffix) Forms the second-person singular present tense of verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    keres (to seek) + ‎-el → ‎keresel (you seek, you are seeking)
  2. (verb-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form a verb.
    ebéd (lunch) + ‎-el → ‎ebédel (to eat lunch)
  3. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun. No longer productive in this role.
    lep (to cover) + ‎-el → ‎lepel (wrap)

Usage notes

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  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -sz added to verbs not in the categories listed below
    vár (to wait) + ‎-sz → ‎vársz (you wait, you are waiting)
    -asz added to back-vowel verbs ending in two consonants or -ít
    hall (to hear) + ‎-asz → ‎hallasz (you hear, you are hearing)
    tanít (to teach) + ‎-asz → ‎tanítasz (you teach, you are teaching)
    -esz added to front-vowel verbs ending in two consonants or -ít
    dönt (to decide) + ‎-esz → ‎döntesz (you decide, you are deciding)
    segít (to help) + ‎-esz → ‎segítesz (you help, you are helping)
    -ol added to back-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    olvas (to read) + ‎-ol → ‎olvasol (you read, you are reading)
    -el added to unrounded front-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    vesz (to buy) + ‎-el → ‎veszel (you buy, you are buying)
    -öl added to rounded front-vowel verbs ending in s, sz, z, dz
    főz (to cook) + ‎-öl → ‎főzöl (you cook, you are cooking)
  • (verb-forming suffix) Variants:
    -l is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final long vowels may shorten, e.g. űü.
    -ol is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -al is added to other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -el is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öl is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ál is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant

Note: Certain words take another, synonymous suffix, -z/-oz/-az/-ez/-öz/-áz or -zik/-ozik/-azik/-ezik/-özik.

  • (noun-forming suffix) Variants:
    -al is added to back-vowel words
    -el is added to front-vowel words

Derived terms

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See also

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Low German

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Low German -el, from Old Saxon -il, from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz.

Suffix

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-el m

  1. Suffix forming nouns originally denoting an agent from verbs.
    Lepel, Snavel, Stickel

Etymology 2

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From Middle Low German -ling. Result of resegmentation of nouns with -el and -ing suffixes. See the English suffix -ling. Akin to English, Dutch and German -ling.

Suffix

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-el m

  1. A suffix that describes a male person (or other creature) in terms of a place of origin or a quality, as defined by the root to which it is added. Now often replaced by a compound with Jung for a male person, and Deern for a female person such as Lehrjung, Lehrdeern (male/female pupil).
Derived terms
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Middle English

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Etymology 1

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From Old English -el, -ol, from Proto-West Germanic *-ul, from Proto-Germanic *-ulaz.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Forms adjectives meaning "tending to" or "able to" from verbs.
Derived terms
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Descendants
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References
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Etymology 2

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From Old English -el, -ol, from Proto-West Germanic *-il, from Proto-Germanic *-ilaz.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Forms diminutives from verbs or other nouns.
  2. Forms agent nouns from verbs or other nouns.
Derived terms
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Descendants
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References
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Etymology 3

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From Old French -el, -ele, from Latin -ālis and -ellus, -ella.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /-ˈɛːl(ə)/, /-ɛl(ə)/

Suffix

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-el

  1. Forms diminutives from verbs or other nouns.
Derived terms
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Descendants
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Etymology 4

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Alternative form of -al

Etymology 5

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Alternative form of -elen

Norman

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Etymology

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From Old French -el, from Latin -ālis.

Suffix

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-el

  1. makes an adjectival form of a noun; -al

Derived terms

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Old English

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Germanic *-a-l-.

Suffix

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-el

  1. Alternative form of -ol

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Germanic *-ilaz.

Alternative forms

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Suffix

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-el

  1. (causes i-mutation) agent and instrumental suffix creating nouns from verbs
    crēopan (to creep) + ‎-el → ‎crypel (cripple)
    bēodan (to command) + ‎-el → ‎bydel (herald, messenger)
    spittan (to dig) + ‎-el → ‎spitel (shovel)
    hladan (to lade) + ‎-el → ‎hlædel (ladle)
    þrēapian (to reprove, reprehend) + ‎-el → ‎þrīpel (instrument of punishment, cross)
Declension
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Descendants
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Old French

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Latin -ālis.

Suffix

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-el

  1. used to form an adjective
Descendants
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Etymology 2

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From Latin -ellus.

Suffix

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-el

  1. used to form a diminutive
Descendants
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Polish

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Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el m

  1. forms masculine agent nouns
    śmierdzieć + ‎-el → ‎śmierdziel

Declension

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Masculine personal:

Masculine animate:

Masculine inanimate:

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • -el in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romani

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Forms the third-person singular present indicative of consonantal oikoclitic verbs

Romanian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin -ellus.

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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-el m (plural -ei, feminine -ea, feminine plural -ele)

  1. used to form a masculine diminutive of a word (e.g. ‎băiat (boy) + ‎-el → ‎băiețel (little boy)
    Synonyms: -uș, -aș, -uț, -șor

Declension

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Derived terms

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Turkish

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
-al -el

Learned borrowing from French -el.[1]

Suffix

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-el

  1. Derives adjectives from nouns and verbs.
    özel (private, special) from öz (self)
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
-al -el

From Ottoman Turkish ـال (-al, -el) or ـل (-l), a combination of Proto-Turkic *-(g)a (verb-forming suffix) and *-il (passive suffix).[2][3]

Suffix

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-el

  1. Derives intransitive verbs from adjectives.
    ince (thin) + ‎-l → ‎(int.) incelmek (to thin)
    dar (narrow) + ‎-al → ‎(int.) daralmak (to narrow)
    çok (many, much) + ‎-al → ‎(int.) çoğalmak (to multiply)
    düz (straight) + ‎-el → ‎(int.) düzelmek (to straighten)
    kısa (short) + ‎-al → ‎(int.) kısalmak (to shorten)
    yön (direction) + ‎-el → ‎(int.) yönelmek (to face, to turn towards)
    diri (alive, not dead) + ‎-l → ‎(int.) dirilmek (to come alive, to come back to life)
Derived terms
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References

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  1. ^ Lewis, Geoffrey (1999) The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, page 102
  2. ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2002–), "+Al-" - in Nişanyan Sözlük
  3. ^ Çağbayır, Yaşar (2007) “-al”, in Ötüken Türkçe Sözlük (in Turkish), Istanbul: Ötüken Neşriyat, page 184

Volapük

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Suffix

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-el

  1. Used to indicate a maker of a certain thing.

Derived terms

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