Translingual

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Etymology 1

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Abbreviation of Spanish español

Symbol

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es

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Spanish.

Etymology 2

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Symbol

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es

  1. (radio slang) a synonym for "and"
    WX HR COLD ES RAINY
    The weather here is cold & rainy.

English

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Etymology 1

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Noun

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es (plural esses)

  1. Alternative form of ess (the name of the Latin-script letter S/s) in compounds such as "es-hook".

Etymology 2

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e +‎ -s.

Noun

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es

  1. (rare) Alternative form of e's.

Etymology 3

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Verb

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es (be)

  1. Pronunciation spelling of is.

Etymology 4

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Noun

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es (plural eses)

  1. The name of the Unspecified script letter С / с.

Anagrams

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Afrikaans

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Etymology

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From Dutch est, variant of eest, from Middle Dutch eeste (also este).

Noun

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es (plural esse)

  1. fireplace
    Synonym: vuurherd

Alemannic German

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Article

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es n

  1. neuter of en: a/an
Declension
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Declension of en
masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative/accusative en e es -
dative emene enere emene -
  • Short forms of the dative – eme, ere, eme – are also common.

Etymology 2

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From Middle High German ëȥ, from Old High German , from Proto-Germanic *it. Cognate with German es.

Pronoun

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es n

  1. (personal) it
Declension
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Aragonese

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Pronoun

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es

  1. them (masculine direct object)

Synonyms

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Aromanian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Latin exeō. Compare Daco-Romanian ieși, ies.

Verb

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es first-singular present indicative (third-person singular present indicative easi or ease, past participle ishitã)

  1. to leave, exit, go out
  2. (of the sun, moon) to rise
  3. (figuratively) to defecate
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See also

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Bavarian

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Etymology 1

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Cognate with German es.

Pronoun

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es

  1. it (nominative)
    Synonym: des
Usage notes
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The usage of es is mainly impersonal. When referring to a noun, the form des is preferred.

See also
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Etymology 2

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Pronoun

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es

  1. Alternative spelling of (you, plural)

Catalan

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Latin .

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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es (proclitic, contracted s', enclitic se, contracted enclitic 's)

  1. himself, herself, itself (direct or indirect object)
  2. oneself (direct or indirect object)
  3. themselves (direct or indirect object)
  4. each other (direct or indirect object)
Usage notes
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  • es is the reinforced (reforçada) form of the pronoun. It is used before verbs beginning with a consonant.
Declension
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Etymology 2

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From Latin ipse.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Article

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es m sg (feminine sa, masculine plural es, masculine plural sos, feminine plural ses)

  1. (Balearic) the
Usage notes
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  • In Balearic Catalan, es contrasts with el as an obviative article, but is often used in first instance.

Etymology 3

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es

  1. plural of e (the letter E)

Further reading

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Cimbrian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Middle High German ëz, iz, from Old High German iz, from Proto-West Germanic *it, from Proto-Germanic *it, nominative/accusative singular neuter of *iz. Cognate with German es.

Pronoun

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es

  1. (Sette Comuni) it

Inflection

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References

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  • “es” in Martalar, Umberto Martello, Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Crimean Tatar

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Etymology

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From Proto-Turkic *es. Compare to Kumyk эс (es), etc.

Noun

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es

  1. mind, consciousness

References

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Czech

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Etymology 1

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es n (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s.
See also
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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es n

  1. inflection of eso:
    1. genitive singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative plural

Danish

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Noun

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es n (singular definite esset, plural indefinite esser)

  1. (card games) ace
    Jeg har alle esserne.
    I have all the aces.

Declension

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See also

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Dutch

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Dutch essche, from Old Dutch *aska, from Proto-West Germanic *ask, from Proto-Germanic *askaz, *askiz.

Compare West Frisian esk, English ash, German Esche, Danish ask, compare Welsh onnen, Latin ornus (wild mountain ash), Lithuanian úosis, Russian ясень (jasenʹ), Albanian ah (beech), Ancient Greek ὀξύα (oxúa, beech), Old Armenian հացի (hacʻi).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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es m (plural essen, diminutive esje n)

  1. ash, ash tree, Fraxinus excelsior
  2. ash, any tree of the genus Fraxinus
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es m (plural essen, diminutive esje n)

  1. (music) E-flat

Etymology 3

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /əs/
  • Hyphenation: es

Adverb

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es

  1. (informal, dialectal) Alternative form of eens (once)
    Kom es hierCome over here (for a second).

Etymology 4

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From Middle Dutch esche, ultimately from Proto-Germanic *atiska-. More at German Esch, Gothic 𐌰𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺 (atisk).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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es m (plural essen, diminutive esje n)

  1. A tract of open, often raised agricultural land near or surrounding a village or hamlet.
    Synonym: enk
Alternative forms
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Finnish

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Etymology

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From German Es (German key notation).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈes/, [ˈe̞s̠]
  • Rhymes: -es
  • Syllabification(key): es

Noun

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es

  1. (music) E-flat

Usage notes

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Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.

Declension

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Inflection of es (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative es esit
genitive esin esien
partitive esiä esejä
illative esiin eseihin
singular plural
nominative es esit
accusative nom. es esit
gen. esin
genitive esin esien
partitive esiä esejä
inessive esissä eseissä
elative esistä eseistä
illative esiin eseihin
adessive esillä eseillä
ablative esiltä eseiltä
allative esille eseille
essive esinä eseinä
translative esiksi eseiksi
abessive esittä eseittä
instructive esein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of es (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative esini esini
accusative nom. esini esini
gen. esini
genitive esini esieni
partitive esiäni esejäni
inessive esissäni eseissäni
elative esistäni eseistäni
illative esiini eseihini
adessive esilläni eseilläni
ablative esiltäni eseiltäni
allative esilleni eseilleni
essive esinäni eseinäni
translative esikseni eseikseni
abessive esittäni eseittäni
instructive
comitative eseineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative esisi esisi
accusative nom. esisi esisi
gen. esisi
genitive esisi esiesi
partitive esiäsi esejäsi
inessive esissäsi eseissäsi
elative esistäsi eseistäsi
illative esiisi eseihisi
adessive esilläsi eseilläsi
ablative esiltäsi eseiltäsi
allative esillesi eseillesi
essive esinäsi eseinäsi
translative esiksesi eseiksesi
abessive esittäsi eseittäsi
instructive
comitative eseinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative esimme esimme
accusative nom. esimme esimme
gen. esimme
genitive esimme esiemme
partitive esiämme esejämme
inessive esissämme eseissämme
elative esistämme eseistämme
illative esiimme eseihimme
adessive esillämme eseillämme
ablative esiltämme eseiltämme
allative esillemme eseillemme
essive esinämme eseinämme
translative esiksemme eseiksemme
abessive esittämme eseittämme
instructive
comitative eseinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative esinne esinne
accusative nom. esinne esinne
gen. esinne
genitive esinne esienne
partitive esiänne esejänne
inessive esissänne eseissänne
elative esistänne eseistänne
illative esiinne eseihinne
adessive esillänne eseillänne
ablative esiltänne eseiltänne
allative esillenne eseillenne
essive esinänne eseinänne
translative esiksenne eseiksenne
abessive esittänne eseittänne
instructive
comitative eseinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative esinsä esinsä
accusative nom. esinsä esinsä
gen. esinsä
genitive esinsä esiensä
partitive esiään
esiänsä
esejään
esejänsä
inessive esissään
esissänsä
eseissään
eseissänsä
elative esistään
esistänsä
eseistään
eseistänsä
illative esiinsä eseihinsä
adessive esillään
esillänsä
eseillään
eseillänsä
ablative esiltään
esiltänsä
eseiltään
eseiltänsä
allative esilleen
esillensä
eseilleen
eseillensä
essive esinään
esinänsä
eseinään
eseinänsä
translative esikseen
esiksensä
eseikseen
eseiksensä
abessive esittään
esittänsä
eseittään
eseittänsä
instructive
comitative eseineen
eseinensä

Derived terms

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compounds

Anagrams

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French

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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es

  1. second-person singular present indicative of être

Anagrams

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Fuyug

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Noun

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es (plural esing)

  1. child

References

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  • Robert L. Bradshaw, Fuyug grammar sketch (2007)

Galician

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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es

  1. second-person singular present indicative of ser

German

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Alternative forms

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  • 's (chiefly informal or poetic)
  • -'s

Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Middle High German ëz, from Old High German iz, from Proto-Germanic *it. Compare English it.

Pronoun

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es n

  1. Nominative and accusative neuter third-person singular personal pronoun
    Wo ist das Buch? Es liegt auf dem Tisch. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    Where's the book? It’s on the table.
    Wo ist das Kind? Ich habe es.Where is the child? I have it.
    Welche Farbe hat das Pferd? Es ist weiß. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    What color is the horse? It is white.
    Ich bemerkte ein merkwürdiges bärtiges Individuum und beschloss, es im Auge zu behalten. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    I remarked a strange bearded individual and decided to keep an eye on him.
    Das Mädchen wusste nicht, dass es beobachtet wurde. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    The girl didn’t know that she was being observed.
    Jedes Vorstandsmitglied kann das Wort ergreifen, wenn es dies wünscht. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    Any board member may take the floor if they so wish.
    • 1952, Marie Luise Kaschnitz, Das dicke Kind:
      Das Kind sagte nichts und sah mich mit seinen kühlen Augen an. Dann war es fort.
      The child said nothing and looked at me with her cold eyes. Then she was gone.
  2. Impersonal pronoun used to refer to statements, activities, the environment etc., or as a placeholder/dummy pronounit
    Das kann es nicht geben. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    This is nothing that could possibly exist.
    Sie begann zu laufen, und ich tat es auch.She started to run, and so did I. (literally, “She began to run, and I did it also.”)
    Es war einmal eine schöne Prinzessin. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    There was once a beautiful princess.
    Es ist gut zu leben! (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    It's good to be alive!
    Es regnet. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    It’s raining.
    Es ist sicher, dass morgen die Sonne scheinen wird. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    It's certain that the sun will shine tomorrow.
    Wie geht es dir? (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    How are you doing?
    Ich bin es, Michael. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    It's me, Michael.
    Es spielt das Fernsehorchester. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    The television orchestra is playing.
    Sie wird es noch weit bringen. (
    Audio:(file)
    )
    She is going to go far.
Usage notes
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  • As a pronoun referring to people who are grammatically neutral, it is sometimes considered old-fashioned or dated to insist on using the neutral es instead of er/sie, especially for Mädchen, in spoken language, and when there is a large distance between when the person is introduced and when the corresponding pronoun is used.
  • In a small and closed set of phrases, es continues a Middle High German ës which was the genitive of ëz: Ich bin es müde ‘I am tired of it’.
  • In the colloquial speech of some areas, this pronoun is fully replaced with the demonstrative pronoun das, with which it shares the unstressed reduction /s/. This reflects a similar development for sie/die, but predates it.
Declension
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Article

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es n

  1. (regional, colloquial) Alternative form of das
    Soll ich es Fenster zumachen?
    Should I close the window?
Usage notes
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  • The contracted form 's is more common, but es is also frequently heard.

Guinea-Bissau Creole

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Etymology

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From Portuguese este. Cognate with Kabuverdianu es.

Pronoun

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es

  1. this

Hunsrik

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Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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es

  1. it

Inflection

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Further reading

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Icelandic

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es n (genitive singular ess, nominative plural es)

  1. (music) E flat

Declension

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Etymology

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By assimilation with  English isFrench esItalian essereSpanish es.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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es

  1. Apocopic form of esas
    Me es hike pro ke lu volis lo.I am here because he wanted me here.

Indonesian

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Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Dutch ijs, from Middle Dutch ijs, from Old Dutch *īs, from Proto-Germanic *īsą, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyH-.

Noun

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ès (plural es-es, first-person possessive esku, second-person possessive esmu, third-person possessive esnya)

  1. ice
Alternative forms
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  • ais (Malaysia, Singapore)
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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From Dutch es

Noun

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ès

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s.
See also
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Further reading

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Interlingua

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Verb

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es

  1. present indicative of esser: is, are, am

Kabuverdianu

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Etymology 1

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From Portuguese eles.

Pronoun

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es

  1. they

Etymology 2

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From Portuguese este.

Pronoun

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es

  1. this

Latgalian

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Alternative forms

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  • (archaic) as

Etymology

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ēź, from Proto-Indo-European *eǵ. Cognates include Latvian es and Lithuanian .

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈæs]
  • Hyphenation: es

Pronoun

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es

  1. I

Declension

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See also

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References

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  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 35

Latin

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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es f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter S.
Usage notes
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  • Multiple Latin names for the letter S, s have been suggested. The most common is es or a syllabic s, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , sss, əs, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ισσε (isse).
Coordinate terms
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References

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  • es in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Italic *es, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ési.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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es

  1. second-person singular present active indicative of sum ("you are") (singular)
  2. second-person singular present active imperative of sum ("be!")

Etymology 3

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Form of the verb edō (I eat).

Pronunciation

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Verb

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ēs

  1. second-person singular present active indicative/imperative of edō
Synonyms
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Latvian

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ēź-, from Proto-Indo-European *eǵ (from *éǵh₂). The non-nominative forms derive from Proto-Indo-European dependent stem *me- (the a instead of e in the Baltic languages appears to result from Iranian influence): reduplicated *me-me-*meneProto-Baltic genitive/accusative *mane*manen (by analogy with other accusatives) → *manens (by analogy with other genitives) → genitive manis, while *manen → accusative mani. Dative man comes from an older *mani. Instrumental variant manim imitates the nominal i-stem paradigm. Cognates include Lithuanian (archaic ), Old Prussian es, as, Sudovian as, Proto-Slavic *(j)azъ (Old Church Slavonic азъ (azŭ), Old East Slavic ꙗзъ (jazŭ), Belarusian, Ukrainian, Russian я (ja), Bulgarian аз (az), Czech (from jaz), Polish ja (from jaz)), Proto-Germanic *ekan, *ek (Gothic 𐌹𐌺 (ik), Old Norse ek, Old High German ih, German ich, Old English ic, English I), Hittite [script needed] (uk), Sanskrit अहम् (ahám), Avestan 𐬀𐬰𐬆𐬨 (azəm), Ancient Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Latin ego, Ossetian ӕз (æz).[1]

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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es (personal, 1st person singular)

  1. I; first person pronoun, referring to the speaker
    Es te dzīvoju.I live here.
    Viņš mani sastapa ceļā.He met me on the road.
    Atnāc pie manis!Come to me (to my place)!
    Nāc ar mani dejot!Come dance with me!
    Man nav laika.I don't have time. (lit. There is no time to me.)
Usage notes
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The dative form manim is used only optionally, with prepositions.

Declension
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See also
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Noun

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es m (invariable)

  1. I, ego (the essence of a person)
    mans esmy I, my ego
    Runātājs izcēla savu es.The speaker highlighted his I, his ego.
    Briesmīgi nezināt nekā un just tikai sevi, savu es.It is terrible to know and feel nothing except oneself, one's I.
    Cilvēks var pierādīt savu vērtību, apliecināt savu “es” tikai darbā.A person can prove their worth, testify their “I”, only in (their) work.

Etymology 2

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A cross-linguistically frequent way of naming this sound, and the respective letter.

Noun

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es m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter S/s.
See also
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References

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  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992) “es”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Lower Sorbian

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es m inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter s/S.

See also

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Malay

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Etymology

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From English ess.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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és (plural es-es)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S/s.

Synonyms

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  • ès (Indonesian)
  • sin (Jawi letter name)

See also

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Middle Dutch

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Pronoun

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es

  1. genitive of hi
  2. genitive of het

Verb

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es

  1. Alternative form of is; third-person singular present indicative of wēsen

Middle English

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Etymology 1

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Determiner

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es

  1. Alternative form of his (his)

Pronoun

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es

  1. Alternative form of his (his)

Etymology 2

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Pronoun

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es

  1. Alternative form of his (her)

Etymology 3

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Verb

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es

  1. Alternative form of is (is)

Middle French

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Etymology 1

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Old French es ("[you] are").

Verb

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es

  1. second-person singular present indicative of estre

Etymology 2

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Old French es ("in the").

Contraction

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es

  1. Contraction of en + les (in the (plural)).

Middle Irish

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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es f (genitive esi)

  1. stoat, weasel

Descendants

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  • Irish: eas

Mutation

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Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
es unchanged n-es
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading

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Norwegian Nynorsk

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Verb

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es

  1. present of asa (to swell, ferment)

Occitan

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Verb

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es

  1. third-person singular present indicative of èsser

Ojibwe

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Etymology

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From Proto-Algonquian *e·hsa.

Noun

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es (plural esag)

  1. shell (2)
  2. oyster

Old French

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Etymology

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Contraction of en les.

Preposition

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es

  1. in the
    • 1377, Bernard de Gordon, Fleur de lis de medecine (a.k.a. lilium medicine), page 186 of this essay:
      l'autre partie va es muscules
      the other part goes into the muscles

Descendants

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  • French: ès (archaic except in fixed expressions)

Old Irish

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Pronunciation

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Alternative forms

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  • ess (theoretically available for all senses; attested in only some)

Etymology 1

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Noun

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es (gender unknown)

  1. the letter s

Etymology 2

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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es (gender unknown)

  1. death

Etymology 3

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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es (gender unknown)

  1. food

Etymology 4

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

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es (gender unknown)

  1. ox

Etymology 5

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun

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es

  1. Alternative spelling of as: third-person singular masculine of a

Mutation

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Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
es unchanged n-es
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Norse

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Norse ᛁᛊᛏ (ist), from Proto-Germanic *isti, first/third-person singular indicative present of *wesaną. Evolved to younger variant er. Compare vesa, vas (vera, var).

Verb

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es

  1. Archaic form of er., third-person singular indicative present of vera

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Germanic *iz (he; 3rd person personal pronoun). Cognate with Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is), Old High German ēr (German er).

Pronoun

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es

  1. Archaic form of er. (which, that)

Conjunction

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es

  1. Archaic form of er. (when, where)

Pennsylvania German

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Compare German es, Dutch het, English it.

Pronunciation

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Article

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es n (definite)

  1. nominative/accusative neuter singular of der: the

Declension

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Pennsylvania German definite articles
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative der die es die
Dative dem or em der dem or em de
Accusative der or den die es die

Pronoun

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es n

  1. it

Declension

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Plautdietsch

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Verb

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es

  1. third-person singular present of sennen

Romagnol

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Etymology

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Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere, from Latin esse.

Verb

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es

  1. to be
  2. (auxiliary, used to form composite past tense of many intransitive verbs) to have (done something).

Sawi

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Interjection

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es

  1. at once
    Uvur haramavimaken, du famud, es! — The tide is about to turn; cook the sago at once![1]
  2. enough

References

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  1. ^ Don Richardson, Peace Child.

Scots

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Noun

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es (plural eses)

  1. Alternative spelling of aes

References

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Spanish

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Latin est, from Proto-Italic *est, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti. Cognate with Sanskrit अस्ति (ásti), English is.

Verb

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es

  1. third-person singular present indicative of ser

Etymology 2

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Noun

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es f pl

  1. plural of e

Sudovian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *is, from Proto-Indo-European *ís. Compare Lithuanian jìs, but dissimilar Latvian viņš (he), Old Prussian tāns (he).[1][2]

Pronoun

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eſ m

  1. (third-person singular) he

References

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  1. ^ Zigmas Zinkevičius (1985) “Lenkų-jotvingių žodynėlis? [A Polish-Yotvingian dictionary?]”, in Baltistica, volume 21, number 1 (in Lithuanian), Vilnius: VU, →DOI, page 72:eſ ‘jis, l. on’ 4.
  2. ^ jìs” in Hock et al., Altlitauisches etymologisches Wörterbuch 2.0 (online, 2020–): “nar. prn. es er”.

Tagalog

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Etymology

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Borrowed from English ess, the English name of the letter S/s.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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es (Baybayin spelling ᜁᜐ᜔)

  1. the name of the Latin-script letter S/s, in the Filipino alphabet
    Synonyms: (in the Abakada alphabet) sa, (in the Abecedario) ese

See also

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Further reading

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  • es”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Tocharian A

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Etymology

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From Proto-Tocharian *ānse, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ṓms-o-s, a form of *h₂ṓms. Compare Tocharian B āntse.

Noun

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es

  1. shoulder
  2. bough, limb (of a tree)
  3. branch of a particular matter

Welsh

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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es

  1. first-person singular preterite colloquial of mynd

Synonyms

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