Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/yós

Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Thematisation of *ís.[1]

PronounEdit

*yós or *Hyós[1][2]

  1. that, who, which (relative)

InflectionEdit

Thematic pronominal
masculine feminine
nominative *yós *yéh₂
genitive *yósyo *yósyeh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *yós *yóh₁ *yóy
accusative *yóm *yóh₁ *yóms
genitive *yósyo *? *yóysoHom
ablative *yósmead *? *yóymos
dative *yósmey *? *yóymos
locative *yósmi *? *yóysu
instrumental *yónoh₁ *? *yṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *yéh₂ *? *yéh₂es
accusative *yā́m *? *yéh₂m̥s
genitive *yósyeh₂s *? *yéh₂soHom
ablative *yósyeh₂s *? *yéh₂mos
dative *yósyeh₂ey *? *yéh₂mos
locative *yósyeh₂ *? *yéh₂su
instrumental *yéh₂(e)h₁ *? *yéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *yód *yóy *yéh₂
accusative *yód *yóy *yéh₂
genitive *yósyo *? *yóysoHom
ablative *yósmead *? *yóymos
dative *yósmey *? *yóymos
locative *yósmi *? *yóysu
instrumental *yónoh₁ *? *yṓys

Derived termsEdit

  • *yoyso-[3]
    • Proto-Hellenic: *yóihos
  • *yo-ty-o
  • *yeh₂-wot
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: [Term?]

DescendantsEdit

  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Slavic: *jь (partially)
  • Celtic: *yos, -yo
    • Celtiberian: ios
    • Gaulish: -ío
  • Proto-Hellenic: *yós
    • Ancient Greek: ὅς (hós)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *Hyás (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic:
    • Latin: iam (< *jā́m)
  • Phrygian: ιος (ios /jos/)
  • Unsorted formations:

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 396
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “τοῖος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1491