See also: IAM, i-am, -iam, I am, and Iam

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

From i- (indeterminate correlative prefix) +‎ -am (correlative suffix of time).

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Adverb edit

iam

  1. sometime, ever (indeterminate correlative of time)
  2. once
    • 2000, Antoine de Saint Exupéry, La Eta Princo, translated by Pierre Delaire from the French
      Iam, kiam mi estis sesjara, mi vidis belegan bildon en iu libro pri la praarbaro, titolita "Travivitaj rakontoj".
      Once, when I was six years old, I saw a magnificent picture in a book about the primeval forest, titled "True Stories".

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Galician edit

Verb edit

iam

  1. (reintegrationist norm) third-person plural imperfect indicative of ir

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Indo-European *Hyā́m, acc.sg.f. of *Hyós (who, which). Cognate with Ancient Greek ὅς (hós), Sanskrit यद् (yás, yā, yad), Avestan 𐬫𐬋 (), Phrygian ιος (ios), Gothic 𐌾𐌰 (ja), 𐌾𐌰𐌹 (jai, yes), Old High German ja, jā (yes) (German ja), Old English ġēa (yea, yes) (English yea).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

iam (not comparable)

  1. already
    Birota iam refecta est.The bicycle has already been repaired.
  2. now
    • c. 190 BCE, Plautus, Curculio 707:
      CAPPADOX: Iam iam faciam ut iusseris.[1]
      CAPPADOX: Now, now, I’ll do as you say (lit., as you will have ordered)![2]
    • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita 6.42.2:
      deinde Sextus et Licinius dē decemvirīs sacrōrum ex parte dē plēbe creandīs lēgem pertulēre. creātī quīnque patrum quīnque plēbis; gradūque eō jam via facta ad consulātum vidēbātur.
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Metamorphoses 15.871:
      Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas.[3]
      And now, I have completed a great work, which not Jove's anger, and not fire nor steel, nor fast-consuming time can sweep away.[4]
  3. anymore
  4. soon
  5. (in transitions) now, again, moreover, once more

Usage notes edit

Iam means, generally, “at some point previous” or “since some point previous”. In English, already, the most common translation, is used only to emphasize that this point might have been expected to be later, whereas now is used to emphasize that the statement was once false, even when the statement refers to a point in the past or future. Iam is used to express either. (Likewise, the most common Latin word for now, nunc, denotes only the literal present moment.) Also, where iam means now, it is often used in negative sentences, in which the most common English construction uses anymore.

However, note that when iam is strengthened as "iam iam" or "iam nunc", the meaning shifts to the present and has a meaning equivalent to nunc (now, at this exact moment).

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Asturian:
  • Catalan: ja
  • Esperanto: jam
  • French:
  • Friulian: za, ğa
  • Galician: xa
  • Basque: ia
  • Ido: ja
  • Interlingua: jam, ja
  • Italian: già
  • Portuguese:
  • Sardinian: gia
  • Sicilian: già
  • Spanish: ya
  • Venetian: ,

References edit

  • iam”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • iam in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • he has been absent five years: quinque annos or sextum (iam) annum abest
    • to be middle-aged (i.e. between thirty and forty): tertiam iam aetatem videre
    • those ideas have long ago been given up: illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt (Fin. 5. 8. 23)
    • as if the victory were already won: sicut parta iam atque explorata victoria
  • iam in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN

Portuguese edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: i‧am

Verb edit

iam

  1. third-person plural imperfect indicative of ir

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology edit

From imati, through elision of /m/.

Verb edit

iam ? (Cyrillic spelling иам)

  1. (colloquial) Alternative form of imam (first-person singular present of imati)