- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /dɛə(ɹ)/
- (General American) IPA(key): /dɛ(ə)ɹ/
- Rhymes: -ɛə(ɹ)
Audio (US) (file)
From Middle English durren, from Old English durran, from Proto-Germanic *durzaną (“to dare”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰedʰórse (“to dare”), reduplicated stative of the root *dʰers- (“to be bold, to dare”), an *-s- extension of *dʰer- (“to hold, support”). Cognate with Low German dören, Dutch durven, Sanskrit दधर्ष (dadhárṣa), but also with Ancient Greek θρασύς (thrasús), Albanian nder, Lithuanian drįsti, Russian дерза́ть (derzátʹ).
- (intransitive) To have enough courage (to do something).
- I wouldn't dare (to) argue with my boss.
- 1611 April (first recorded performance), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Cymbeline”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene i]:
- The fellow dares not deceive me.
- 1832, Thomas Macaulay, Parliamentary Reform
- Why then did not the ministers use their new law? Because they durst not, because they could not.
- (transitive) To defy or challenge (someone to do something)
- I dare you to kiss that girl.
- (transitive) To have enough courage to meet or do something, go somewhere, etc.; to face up to
- Will you dare death to reach your goal?
- 1886, Clarence King, article in The Century
- To wrest it from barbarism, to dare its solitudes.
- (transitive) To terrify; to daunt.
- (transitive) To catch (larks) by producing terror through the use of mirrors, scarlet cloth, a hawk, etc., so that they lie still till a net is thrown over them.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Nares to this entry?)
- Dare is a semimodal verb. When used as an auxiliary, the speaker can choose whether to use do-support and the auxiliary "to" when forming negative and interrogative sentences. For example, "I don't dare (to) go", "I dare not go", "I didn't dare (to) go", and "I dared not go" are all correct. Similarly "Dare you go?", "Do you dare (to) go?", "Dared you go?", and "Did you dare (to) go?" are all correct. When not an auxiliary verb, it is different: "I dared him to do it." usually is not written as "I dared him do it.", and "Did you dare him to do it?" is almost never written as "Dared you him do it?"
- In negative and interrogative sentences where "do" is not used, the third-person singular form of the verb is usually "dare" and not "dares": "Dare he go? He dare not go."
- Colloquially, "dare not" can be contracted to "daren't". According to the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, "daren’t" is used occasionally in ordinary past time contexts (Kim daren’t tell them so I had to do it myself).
- Rare regional forms dassn't and dasn't also exists in the present tense and archaic forms dursn't and durstn't in the past tense.
- The expression dare say, used almost exclusively in the first-person singular and in the present tense, means "think probable". It is also spelt daresay.
- Historically, the simple past of dare was durst. In the 1830s, it was overtaken by dared, which has been markedly more common ever since.
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
dare (plural dares)
- A challenge to prove courage.
- The quality of daring; venturesomeness; boldness.
- c. 1597, William Shakespeare, “The First Part of Henry the Fourth, […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene i]:
- It lends a lustre […] / A large dare to our great enterprise.
- Defiance; challenge.
- [1611?], Homer, “(please specify |book=I to XXIV)”, in Geo[rge] Chapman, transl., The Iliads of Homer Prince of Poets. […], London: […] Nathaniell Butter, OCLC 614803194; The Iliads of Homer, Prince of Poets, […], volume (please specify the book number), new edition, London: Charles Knight and Co., […], 1843, OCLC 987451361:
- Childish, unworthy dares / Are not enough to part our powers.
- c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii]:
- Sextus Pompeius / Hath given the dare to Caesar.
- (obsolete) To stare stupidly or vacantly; to gaze as though amazed or terrified. [16thc.]
- (obsolete) To lie or crouch down in fear. [16thc.]
dare (plural dares)
- A small fish, the dace.
- 1766, Richard Brookes, The art of angling, rock and sea-fishing:
- The Dare is not unlike a Chub, but proportionably less; his Body is more white and flatter, and his Tail more forked.
Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for dare in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.)
dàre (first-person singular present (with following syntactic gemination) dò or (with written accent, with following syntactic gemination) dò, first-person singular past historic dièdi or dètti, past participle dàto, first-person singular present subjunctive dìa, first-person singular imperfect subjunctive déssi, second-person singular imperative dai or da' or (with written accent, with following syntactic gemination) dà, auxiliary avere) (transitive)
- to give (to transfer the possession/holding of something to someone else)
- to yield, to bear, to produce, to return
The imperative forms of the second-person singular are compounded with pronouns as follows:
- da' + ci → dacci
- da' + gli → dagli
- da' + gli/le + la → dagliela
- da' + gli/le + le → dagliele
- da' + gli/le + li → daglieli
- da' + gli/le + lo → daglielo
- da' + le → dalle
- da' + mi → dammi
|present participle||dante||past participle||dato|
|indicative||io||tu||lui/lei, esso/essa||noi||voi||loro, essi/esse|
|past historic||diedi, detti||desti||diede, dette||demmo||deste||diedero, dettero|
|conditional||io||tu||lui/lei, esso/essa||noi||voi||loro, essi/esse|
|subjunctive||che io||che tu||che lui/che lei, che esso/che essa||che noi||che voi||che loro, che essi/che esse|
|dà, da', dai, non dare||dia||diamo||date||diano|
dare m (plural dari)
- Rōmaji transcription of
- to give
dare ? (plural dares)
dare f (plural dări)
dare (Cyrillic spelling даре)
- to give