English edit

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Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin castrum. Doublet of Chester.

Noun edit

castrum (plural castra)

  1. (historical) Among the Ancient Romans, a building or plot of land used as a military defensive position.

Latin edit

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Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *kastrom, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱes- (to cut, cut off, separate) +‎ Proto-Indo-European *-trom (Latin -trum) (Watkins, 1969). An older etymology (1899) derived castrum from Latin casa, and proposed an ultimate etymon from a Sanskrit root (sic) *skad-, "to cover". If directly from Proto-Indo-European *ḱ(e)stróm, cognate with Sanskrit शस्त्र (śastrá, cutting tool).[1] See also castrō, careō.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

castrum n (genitive castrī); second declension

  1. castle, fort, fortress
  2. (chiefly plural) several soldiers' tents situated together; hence, a military camp, an encampment

Usage notes edit

Use in singular is rarer than that of castellum.

Declension edit

Second-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative castrum castra
Genitive castrī castrōrum
Dative castrō castrīs
Accusative castrum castra
Ablative castrō castrīs
Vocative castrum castra

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  1. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1988) The Proto-Indo-European Instrument Noun Suffix *-tlom and its Variants (Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser; 55), Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, →ISBN, page 16: “3.1.1. *k̂əs-trom/*-trah₂ “cutting tool””
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “castrum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 97–98
  • castrum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • castrum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • castrum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • castrum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • veterans; experienced troops: qui magnum in castris usum habent
    • to disarm a person: armis (castris) exuere aliquem
    • to leave troops to guard the camp: praesidio castris milites relinquere
    • to mount guard in the camp: vigilias agere in castris (Verr. 4. 43)
    • to keep the troops in camp: copias castris continere
    • to remain inactive in camp: se (quietum) tenere castris
  • castrum”, in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 586