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EnglishEdit

 
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A castle

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English castle, castel, from Old English castel, castell (a town, village, castle), borrowed from Late Latin castellum (small camp, fort), diminutive of Latin castrum (camp, fort, citadel, stronghold), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kat- (hut, shed). Parallel borrowings (from Late Latin or Old French) are Scots castel, castell (castle), West Frisian kastiel (castle), Dutch kasteel (castle), German Kastell (castle), Danish kastel (citadel), Swedish kastell (citadel), Icelandic kastali (castle), Welsh castell. The Middle English word was reinforced by Anglo-Norman/Old Northern French castel, itself from Late Latin castellum (small camp, fort) (compare modern French château from Old French chastel). If Latin castrum (camp, fort, citadel, stronghold) is from Proto-Indo-European *kat- (hut, shed), Latin casa (cottage, hut) is related. Possibly related also to Gothic 𐌷𐌴𐌸𐌾𐍉 (hēþjō, chamber), Old English heaþor (restraint, confinement, enclosure, prison). See also casino, cassock.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

castle (plural castles)

  1. A large building that is fortified and contains many defences; in previous ages often inhabited by a nobleman or king.
  2. (chess) An instance of castling.
  3. (shogi) A defense structure in Japanese chess in which the king (玉) is positioned in a certain way so that it is protected by pawns (歩) and silver general(s) (銀) and/or gold general(s) (金) often with an additional knight (桂) and lance (香車).
  4. (chess, informal) A rook; a chess piece shaped like a castle tower.
  5. (obsolete) A close helmet.
    • 1786, Francis Grose, A Treatise on Ancient Armour and Weapons, page 12:
      The castle was perhaps a figurative name for a close headpiece deduced from its enclosing and defending the head, as a castle did the whole body; or a corruption from the Old French word casquetel, a small or light helmet.
  6. (dated) Any strong, imposing, and stately mansion.
  7. (dated) A small tower, as on a ship, or an elephant's back.

Usage notesEdit

For the chess piece, chess players prefer the term rook.

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TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit

Chess pieces in English · chess pieces, chessmen (see also: chess) (layout · text)
           
king queen castle, rook bishop knight pawn

VerbEdit

castle (third-person singular simple present castles, present participle castling, simple past and past participle castled)

  1. (transitive) To house or keep in a castle.
    • 1611, John Florio, Queen Anna's New World of Words, s.v. "Castellare":
      ...to encastle, to Castle.
    • 1871, Robert Browning, "Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau, Saviour of Society", 116:
      ...Some fierce tribe, castled on the mountain-peak...
  2. (transitive, figuratively) To protect or separate in a similar way.
    • 1655, William Gurnall, The Christian in Compleat Armour, 1st Pt., 32:
      Castle me in the armes of thy everlasting strength.
  3. (obsolete) To make into a castle: to build in the form of a castle or add (real or imitation) battlements to an existing building.
  4. (usually intransitive, chess) To move the king 2 squares right or left and, in the same turn, the nearest rook to the far side of the king. The move now has special rules: the king cannot be in, go through, or end in check; the squares between the king and rook must be vacant; and neither piece may have been moved before castling.
    • 1656, Francis Beale translating Gioachino Greco as The Royall Game of Chesse-Play, Being the Study of Biochimo, p. 8:
      He [i.e., the king] may change (or Castle) with this Rooke, that is, he may goe two draughts at once towards this Rooke... causing the Rooke to stand next to him on either side.
    • 1835, William Lewis, Chess for Beginners, Ch. 5, p. 24:
      No. 24. ¶ If your adversary make a false move, castle improperly, &c., you must take notice of such irregularity before you move, or even touch a piece, or you are no longer allowed to inflict any penalties.
  5. (usually intransitive, shogi) To create a similar defensive position in Japanese chess through several moves.
  6. (cricket) To bowl a batsman with a full-length ball or yorker such that the stumps are knocked over.
    • 2009, BBC Sport, "Lightning Bolt Blows Over Gayle":
      And the 23-year-old brought the crowd to their feet when he castled Gayle's stumps, signalling the direction of the pavilion to his friend for good measure.
    • 2011, Firdose Moonda, ESPNcricinfo, "A Day for Missed Hat-tricks":
      He bowled Vinay with a with a full, straight ball that castled off stump and then dished up a yorker that RP Singh backed away to and sent onto his stumps.

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