anaphoric demonstrative pronoun

  1. (Old Egyptian) Used for vocative reference
  2. (Middle Egyptian) the aforementioned one, the said one
  3. (Late Egyptian) the definite article; the
  4. (Late Egyptian, with following noun) he of, this of, that of

Usage notesEdit

This demonstrative is a pronoun, and so does not directly modify nouns. In Middle Egyptian it becomes used as a demonstrative modifying plural nouns. When used in this way, it precedes the noun, with the genitival adjective n(j) in between, e.g. "said feet" is nꜣ n(j) rdw (literally "the aforementioned one of feet").

In Middle Egyptian, this pronoun was somewhat colloquial; in Late Egyptian its force had weakened to that of a definite article.



  • Demotic: nꜣ
    • Coptic: ⲛ- (n-) (Sahidic, Fayyumic, Akhmimic, Lycopolitan), ⲛⲉ- (ne-) (Sahidic, Fayyumic, Lycopolitan), ⲛⲓ- (ni-) (Bohairic, Fayyumic)


  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN.
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 53
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN