m sg anaphoric demonstrative determiner
- (Old Egyptian) O (vocative reference)
- (Middle Egyptian) the aforementioned, the said
- (Late Egyptian) the definite article; the
- (Late Egyptian, with following noun) he of, this of, that of
This demonstrative was originally a determiner but could later be used alone, like a pronoun. When used as a determiner it precedes the noun it describes.
In Middle Egyptian, this pronoun was possibly somewhat colloquial; in Late Egyptian its force had weakened to that of a definite article.
Old Egyptian demonstratives
|proximal to speaker
|proximal to spoken of
||pj, pw, py, p
||tj, tw, jtw
- Unmarked for number and gender, but treated syntactically as masculine plurals when used with participles and relative forms, and as feminine singulars when referred to by resumptive pronouns.
Middle Egyptian demonstratives
||determiners and pronouns
- Joined by n(j) to nouns they modify.
Late Egyptian demonstratives and articles
|determiners and pronouns
|possessive determiners (used with suffix pronouns)
|relational pronouns (‘possessive prefixes’)
- Originally joined by n(j) to nouns they modify; later without it.
Alternative hieroglyphic writings of pꜣ
- James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 54–56.
- Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 53
- Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 87
- Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 68–70