f sg proximal demonstrative determiner
- (Old Egyptian) this
This demonstrative follows the noun it describes. By Middle Egyptian, it had become tw.
Old Egyptian demonstratives
|proximal to speaker
|proximal to spoken of
||pj, pw, py, p
||tj, tw, jtw
- Unmarked for number and gender, but treated syntactically as masculine plurals when used with participles and relative forms, and as feminine singulars when referred to by resumptive pronouns.
Middle Egyptian demonstratives
Late Egyptian demonstratives and articles
|determiners and pronouns
|possessive determiners (used with suffix pronouns)
|relational pronouns (‘possessive prefixes’)
- Originally joined by n(j) to nouns they modify; later without it.
Loprieno considers tj a development of (j)sṯ, stj (“while”), from Old Egyptian sk. Allen instead sees it as related to tjw (“yes”).
- converts a sentence with adverbial or verbal predicate into a dependent adverbial (circumstantial) clause; yea, while, when, although
When the dependent clause introduced by tj has a personal pronoun as its subject, it takes the dependent form.
Alternative hieroglyphic writings of tj
- Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
- James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 145.