Latin edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *nokeō, from earlier *nokejō, from Proto-Indo-European *noḱé-ye-ti, causative of the root *neḱ- (perish, disappear). Cognate with Sanskrit नश्यति (naśyati, disappear, perish).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

noceō (present infinitive nocēre, perfect active nocuī, supine nocitum); second conjugation

  1. (with dative) to injure, do harm to, hurt, damage
    Synonyms: feriō, vulnerō, secō, īnfestō

Usage notes edit

  • The injury caused may be physical or emotional.

Conjugation edit

  • In practice, the only passive forms met with in Latin are the third-person singular forms.
   Conjugation of noceō (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present noceō nocēs nocet nocēmus nocētis nocent
imperfect nocēbam nocēbās nocēbat nocēbāmus nocēbātis nocēbant
future nocēbō nocēbis nocēbit nocēbimus nocēbitis nocēbunt
perfect nocuī nocuistī nocuit nocuimus nocuistis nocuērunt,
pluperfect nocueram nocuerās nocuerat nocuerāmus nocuerātis nocuerant
future perfect nocuerō nocueris nocuerit nocuerimus nocueritis nocuerint
sigmatic future1 noxō noxis noxit noximus noxitis noxint
passive present noceor nocēris,
nocētur nocēmur nocēminī nocentur
imperfect nocēbar nocēbāris,
nocēbātur nocēbāmur nocēbāminī nocēbantur
future nocēbor nocēberis,
nocēbitur nocēbimur nocēbiminī nocēbuntur
perfect nocitus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect nocitus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect nocitus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present noceam noceās noceat noceāmus noceātis noceant
imperfect nocērem nocērēs nocēret nocērēmus nocērētis nocērent
perfect nocuerim nocuerīs nocuerit nocuerīmus nocuerītis nocuerint
pluperfect nocuissem nocuissēs nocuisset nocuissēmus nocuissētis nocuissent
sigmatic aorist1 noxim noxīs noxīt,
noxīmus noxītis noxint
passive present nocear noceāris,
noceātur noceāmur noceāminī noceantur
imperfect nocērer nocērēris,
nocērētur nocērēmur nocērēminī nocērentur
perfect nocitus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect nocitus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present nocē nocēte
future nocētō nocētō nocētōte nocentō
passive present nocēre nocēminī
future nocētor nocētor nocentor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives nocēre nocuisse nocitūrum esse nocērī,
nocitum esse nocitum īrī
participles nocēns nocitūrus nocitus nocendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
nocendī nocendō nocendum nocendō nocitum nocitū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").
2The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • North Italian:
    • Friulian: nosê
    • Romansch: noscher, nuschair
  • Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:

Reflexes of an assumed variant *nocĕre:[1]

References edit

  1. ^ Walther von Wartburg (1928–2002), “nŏcēre”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 7: N–Pas, page 162

Further reading edit

  • noceo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • noceo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • noceo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.