Last modified on 24 April 2014, at 22:36

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
形-bw.png

EtymologyEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + . In current form 幵 has been simplified to .

Han characterEdit

(radical 59 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 一廿竹竹竹 (MTHHH), four-corner 12422, composition)

  1. form, shape, appearance

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 363, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9969
  • Dae Jaweon: page 681, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 852, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5F62

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(Jyutping jing4, Yale ying4)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Probably related to 堅い / 硬い / 固い (​katai), hard.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かた, romaji kata)

  1. a shape
  2. a form
  3. a pattern, die, or model from which copies are made
  4. on a coin, the side with writing on it: see antonym 縵面 (​name)
  5. collateral for borrowed money

Etymology 2Edit

Derived from kata above. The kata changes to gata due to rendaku (連濁). Only found in compounds.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana がた, romaji gata)

  1. (affixed to nouns): the shape or form of the affixed noun
    渦巻き
    うずまきがた
    uzumakigata
    a whirlpool shape
    たまごがた
    tamagogata
    an egg shape
  2. (affixed to on'yomi nouns): a typical example of the affixed noun; the type of the affixed noun
    学者
    がくしゃがた
    gakushagata
    a scholar type
    英雄
    えいゆうがた
    eiyūgata
    a hero type
Usage notesEdit

For a shape, the spelling is more commonly used. For a type, the spelling is more commonly used.

Etymology 3Edit

Derived from 形木 (​katagi), itself a compound of (kata, shape) +‎ (ki, tree, wood), meaning stencil. The ki changes to gi due to rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かたぎ, romaji katagi)

  1. social customs, mores
  2. one's appearance; one's stance or body language
  3. one's character, disposition, nature

SuffixEdit

(hiragana かたぎ, romaji katagi)

  1. the character, disposition, or nature of the affixed noun

Etymology 4Edit

Unknown. Appears to be /kata/ + /chi/, but the derivation of the /chi/ element is unclear.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かたち, romaji katachi)

  1. shape or form
  2. form, as opposed to substance
  3. shapeliness: see 形有り (​katachiari)

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle Chinese (heng). Compare modern Mandarin (xíng). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana けい, romaji -kei)

  1. (linguistics) grammatical tense
    過去
    かこけい
    kakokei
    the past tense
    将来
    しょうらいけい
    shōraikei
    the future tense
  2. (Japanese grammar) a conjugation form of a verb
    連用
    れんようけい
    ren'yōkei
    the continuative form
    命令
    めいれいけい
    meireikei
    the imperative or command form

Etymology 6Edit

From 成り (​nari), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of the verb 成る (naru, to become).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Usage notesEdit

The most common spelling for this use is なり, for all parts of speech.

NounEdit

(hiragana なり, romaji nari)

  1. one's clothing and appearance
  2. one's body shape or form
  3. one's circumstances or situation
  4. one's reputation
  5. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) or plain perfective form of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    人々言うなりになった
    ひとびとのいうなりになった
    hitobito no iu nari ni natta
    things turned out just as people were saying
  6. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) of an adjective, indicates responding to the affixed adjective: compare English fitting
    寒ければ寒いなり厚着する
    さむければさむいなりのあつぎをする
    samukereba samui nari no atsugi o suru
    if it's cold, then put on warm clothing / if it's cold, then put on warm clothes for cold weather
  7. following the plain imperfective form (attributive form, 連対形 (​rentaikei)) of a verb, indicates the moment of the action occurring: compare English as soon as
    断り聞くなり泣き出した
    ことわりをきくなりなきだした
    kotowari o kiku nari nakidashita
    she burst into tears as soon as she heard the rejection
  8. following a noun, indicates a state fitting or becoming to the affixed noun
    子供なり想像する
    こどもなりにそうぞうする
    kodomo nari ni sōzō suru
    imagine in a way fitting for a child / imagine like a child (implies that the subject is a child)
    自分なり判断
    じぶんなりのはんだん
    jibun nari no handan
    my own kind of decision / deciding in my own way
  9. following a noun, indicates that shape or form: compare English like
    なりなる
    ゆみなりになる
    yumi nari ni naru
    to become bow-shaped / to become like a bow

SuffixEdit

(hiragana なり, romaji nari)

  1. following the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of a verb, indicates the state of the affixed verb or phrase: compare English just as
    人々言いなりになった
    ひとびとがいいなりになった
    hitobito ga iinari ni natta
    things turned out just as people say

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hyeong) (hangeul , revised hyeong, McCune-Reischauer hyŏng, Yale hyeng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

MandarinEdit

HanziEdit

(Pinyin xíng (xing2), fǎng (fang3), Wade-Giles hsing2, fang3)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

CompoundsEdit


Middle ChineseEdit

Han characterEdit

(*heng)

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Min NanEdit

HanziEdit

(TLPA hîng (hing5))

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ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hình, hềnh)

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