See also: ع ب د

Arabic edit

Root
ع ب د(ʕ-b-d)
 
عَبْدٌ مَسِيحِيٌّ

Etymology edit

A Central Semitic innovation, cognate with Hebrewעֶבֶד(ʿéḇeḏ), Phoenician𐤏𐤁𐤃(ʿbd), Ugaritic 𐎓𐎁𐎄 (ʿbd), Classical Syriacܥܒܕܐ(ʿaḇdā), Old South Arabian𐩲𐩨𐩵(ʿbd).

Pronunciation 1 edit

Noun edit

عَبْد (ʕabdm (pluralعَبِيد(ʕabīd) orعِبَاد(ʕibād) orعُبْدَان(ʕubdān) orأَعْبُد(ʔaʕbud), feminineأَمَة(ʔama))

  1. a person who is under the ownership of another, a chattel slave, a bondservant
    Synonyms: (dated)مَوْلَى(mawlā, servant), ⁧رَقِيق(raqīq, slave)
    Coordinate terms: (dated)مَوْلَى(mawlā, overlord), ⁧رَبّ(rabb, lord), ⁧سَيِّد(sayyid, master)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 24:32:
      وَأَنْكِحُوا ٱلْأَيَامَى مِنْكُمْ وَٱلصَّالِحِينَ مِنْ عِبَادِكُمْ وَإِمَائِكُمْ إِنْ يَكُونُوا فُقَرَاءَ يُغْنِهِمُ ٱللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَٱللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
      waʔankiḥū l-ʔayāmā minkum waṣ-ṣāliḥīna min ʕibādikum waʔimāʔikum ʔin yakūnū fuqarāʔa yuḡnihimu l-lahu min faḍlihi wal-lahu wāsiʕun ʕalīmun
      And marry the unmarried among you and the righteous among your male slaves and female slaves. If they should be poor, Allah will enrich them from His bounty, and Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing
    • (Can we date this quote?), ⁧عَميرة بن جُعَل التَّغْلِبيّ⁩, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      جَمَعْتُ رُدَيْنِيًّا كَأَنَّ سِنَانَهُ / سَنَا لَهَبٍ لَمْ يَسْتَعِنْ بِدُخَانِ
      لَيَالِيَ إِذْ أَنْتُمْ لِرَهْطِيَ أَعْبُدٌ / بِرَمَّانَ لَمَّا أَجْدَبَ ٱلحَرَمَانِ
      jamaʕtu rudayniyyan kaʔanna sinānahu / sanā lahabin lam yastaʕin biduḵāni
      layāliya ʔiḏ ʔantum lirahṭiya ʔaʕbudun / birammāna lammā ʔajdaba l-ḥaramāni
      I held up my Rudayni spear, its teeth like splendid, smokeless flames
      For nights, you were bondsmen for my troop, in Ramān, when the Sanctuaries dried.
    1. someone resembling, likened to, or related to a slave (as in status, worth, condition, and so on)
      • (Can we date this quote?), ⁧اَلْمُتَنَبِّيّ⁩, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
        أَكُلَّمَا ٱغْتَالَ عَبْدُ السَّوْءِ سَيِّدَهُ / أَوْ خَانَهُ فَلَهُ فِي مِصْرَ تَمْهِيدُ
        صَارَ الْخَصِيُّ إِمَامَ الْآبِقِينَ بِهَا / فَٱلْحُرُّ مُسْتَعْبَدٌ وَٱلْعَبْدُ مَعْبُودُ
        نَامَتْ نَوَاطِيرُ مِصْرٍ عَنْ ثَعَالِبِهَا / فَقَدْ بَشِمْنَ وَمَا تَفْنَى العَنَاقِيدُ
        الْعَبْدُ لَيْسَ لِحُرٍّ صَالِحٍ بِأَخٍ / لَوْ أَنَّهُ فِي ثِيَابِ الْحُرِّ مَوْلُودُ
        لَا تَشْتَرِ الْعَبْدَ إِلَّا وَٱلْعَصَا مَعَهُ / إِنَّ الْعَبِيدَ لَأَنْجَاسٌ مَنَاكِيدُ
        مَا كُنْتُ أَحْسَبُنِي أَحْيَا إِلَى زَمَنٍ / يُسِيءُ بِي فِيهِ كَلْبٌ وَهْوَ مَحْمُودُ
        ʔakullamā ḡtāla ʕabdu s-sawʔi sayyidahu / ʔaw ḵānahu falahu fī miṣra tamhīdu
        ṣāra l-ḵaṣiyyu ʔimāma l-ʔābiqīna bihā / fal-ḥurru mustaʕbadun wal-ʕabdu maʕbūdu
        nāmat nawāṭīru miṣrin ʕan ṯaʕālibihā / faqad bašimna wamā tafnā l-ʕanāqīdu
        al-ʕabdu laysa liḥurrin ṣāliḥin biʔaḵin / law ʔannahu fī ṯiyābi l-ḥurri mawlūdu
        lā taštari l-ʕabda ʔillā wal-ʕaṣā maʕahu / ʔinna l-ʕabīda laʔanjāsun manākīdu
        mā kuntu ʔaḥsabunī ʔaḥyā ʔilā zamanin / yusīʔu bī fīhi kalbun wahwa maḥmūdu
        Can any fiendish slave who slew or stabbed his master find in Egypt refuge, there to be advanced?
        The Castrate King became the Chief of Runaways! The servants are revered; the freeman is disgraced!
        The Egyptian shepherds, they all are now asleep, and foxes roam, and all were drowsed with endless grapes!
        A freeman and a slave are neither peers nor brothers, though the slave may be in freemen's clothing raised.
        Never pay for any slave without the stick too: a slave, to noble men, is foul, and vile, and damned!
        I never thought that I would live and see a dog degrading me while he himself is hailed and praised!
  2. (vulgar, ethnic slur, offensive, colloquial) nigger, term of abuse for a black person
Declension edit
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Libyan Arabic: ⁧عبد(ʕabəd)
  • Maltese: għabid (obsolete, from the plural ⁧عَبِيد(ʕabīd))
  • South Levantine Arabic: ⁧عبد(ʕabad)
  • English: abid
  • Maranao: abdo
  • Ottoman Turkish: ⁧عبد(abd)
  • Persian: ⁧عبد('abd)
  • Sundanese: abdi
  • Tajik: абд (abd)

Pronunciation 2 edit

Verb edit

عَبَدَ (ʕabada) I, non-pastيَعْبُدُ⁩‎ (yaʕbudu)

  1. to worship, to serve, to be devoted to; to venerate or adore in a subservient manner
Conjugation edit

Pronunciation 3 edit

Verb edit

عَبَّدَ (ʕabbada) II, non-pastيُعَبِّدُ⁩‎ (yuʕabbidu)

  1. to enslave, to subjugate, to subject
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 26:22:
      وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَيَّ أَنْ عَبَّدْتَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
      watilka niʕmatun tamunnuhā ʕalayya ʔan ʕabbadta banī ʔisrāʔīla
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
Conjugation edit
Descendants edit

References edit

  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “عبد”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Libyan Arabic edit

Noun edit

عبد⁩ (ʿabədm (عبيد(ʕbīd) and عبدّة(ʕbədda) pl [only for sense 1])

  1. slave
  2. (derogatory, ethnic slur) black man

Verb edit

عبد⁩ (ʿbad)

  1. to worship

Persian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Arabicعَبْد(ʕabd).

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? aḇd
Dari reading? abd
Iranian reading? abd
Tajik reading? abd

Noun edit

Dari عبد
Iranian Persian
Tajik абд

عَبْد ('abd) (pluralعباد⁩)

  1. slave
  2. servant

Synonyms edit

South Levantine Arabic edit

Root
ع ب د
1 term

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabicعَبَدَ(ʕabada).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕa.bad/, [ˈʕa.bad]
  • (file)

Verb edit

عبد (ʕabad) I (presentبعبد(boʕbod))

  1. to worship
Conjugation edit
    Conjugation of ⁧عبد(ʕabad)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m عبدت⁩ (ʕabadt) عبدت⁩ (ʕabadt) عبد⁩ (ʕabad) عبدنا⁩ (ʕabadna) عبدتو⁩ (ʕabadtu) عبدو⁩ (ʕabadu)
f عبدتي⁩ (ʕabadti) عبدت⁩ (ʕabdat)
present m بعبد⁩ (baʕbod) بتعبد⁩ (btoʕbod) بعبد⁩ (boʕbod) منعبد⁩ (mnoʕbod) بتعبدو⁩ (btoʕbodu) بعبدو⁩ (boʕbodu)
f بتعبدي⁩ (btoʕbodi) بتعبد⁩ (btoʕbod)
subjunctive m أعبد⁩ (ʔaʕbod) تعبد⁩ (toʕbod) يعبد⁩ (yoʕbod) نعبد⁩ (noʕbod) تعبدو⁩ (toʕbodu) يعبدو⁩ (yoʕbodu)
f تعبدي⁩ (toʕbodi) تعبد⁩ (toʕbod)
imperative m اعبد⁩ (oʕbod) اعبدو⁩ (oʕbodu)
f اعبدي⁩ (oʕbodi)

Etymology 2 edit

Learned borrowing from Arabicعَبَّدَ(ʕabbada).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕab.bad/, [ˈʕab.bad]
  • (file)

Verb edit

عبّد (ʕabbad) II (presentبعبّد(biʕabbed))

  1. to pave
    Synonym:زفّت(zaffat)
Conjugation edit
    Conjugation of ⁧عبّد(ʕabbad)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m عبّدت⁩ (ʕabbadt) عبّدت⁩ (ʕabbadt) عبّد⁩ (ʕabbad) عبّدنا⁩ (ʕabbadna) عبّدتو⁩ (ʕabbadtu) عبّدو⁩ (ʕabbadu)
f عبّدتي⁩ (ʕabbadti) عبّدت⁩ (ʕabbadat)
present m بعبّد⁩ (baʕabbed) بتعبّد⁩ (bitʕabbed) بعبّد⁩ (biʕabbed) منعبّد⁩ (minʕabbed) بتعبّدو⁩ (bitʕabbdu) بعبّدو⁩ (biʕabbdu)
f بتعبّدي⁩ (bitʕabbdi) بتعبّد⁩ (bitʕabbed)
subjunctive m اعبّد⁩ (aʕabbed) تعبّد⁩ (tʕabbed) يعبّد⁩ (yʕabbed) نعبّد⁩ (nʕabbed) تعبّدو⁩ (tʕabbdu) يعبّدو⁩ (yʕabbdu)
f تعبّدي⁩ (tʕabbdi) تعبّد⁩ (tʕabbed)
imperative m عبّد⁩ (ʕabbed) عبّدو⁩ (ʕabbdu)
f عبّدي⁩ (ʕabbdi)