See also: ع ب د

ArabicEdit

 
عَبْدٌ مَسِيحِيٌّ

EtymologyEdit

From the root ع ب د(ʿ-b-d). A Central Semitic innovation, cognate with Hebrew עֶבֶד(ʿéḇeḏ), Phoenician 𐤏𐤁𐤃(ʿbd), Ugaritic 𐎓𐎁𐎄 (ʿbd), Classical Syriac ܥܒܕܐ(ʿaḇdā), Old South Arabian 𐩲𐩨𐩵(ʿbd).

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

عَبْد (ʿabdm (plural عَبِيد(ʿabīd) or عِبَاد(ʿibād) or عُبْدَان(ʿubdān) or أَعْبُد(ʾaʿbud), feminine أَمَة(ʾama))

  1. a person who is under the ownership of another, a chattel slave, a bondsman
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 24:32:
      وَأَنْكِحُوا ٱلْأَيَامَى مِنْكُمْ وَٱلصَّالِحِينَ مِنْ عِبَادِكُمْ وَإِمَائِكُمْ إِنْ يَكُونُوا فُقَرَاءَ يُغْنِهِمُ ٱللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَٱللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
      waʾankiḥū l-ʾayāmā minkum waṣ-ṣāliḥīna min ʿibādikum waʾimāʾikum ʾin yakūnū fuqarāʾa yuḡnihimu l-lahu min faḍlihi wal-lahu wāsiʿun ʿalīmun
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • (Can we date this quote?), عَميرة بن جُعَل التَّغْلِبيّ, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      جَمَعْتُ رُدَيْنِيًّا كَأَنَّ سِنَانَهُ / سَنَا لَهَبٍ لَمْ يَسْتَعِنْ بِدُخَانِ
      لَيَالِيَ إِذْ أَنْتُمْ لِرَهْطِيَ أَعْبُدٌ / بِرَمَّانَ لَمَّا أَجْدَبَ ٱلحَرَمَانِ
      jamaʿtu rudayniyyan kaʾanna sinānahu / sanā lahabin lam yastaʿin biduḵāni
      layāliya ʾiḏ ʾantum lirahṭiya ʾaʿbudun / birammāna lammā ʾajdaba l-ḥaramāni
      I held up my Rudayni spear, its teeth like splendid, smokeless flames
      For nights, you were bondsmen for my troop, in Ramān, when the Sanctuaries dried.
    1. someone resembling, likened to, or related to a slave (as in status, worth, condition, and so on)
      • (Can we date this quote?), اَلْمُتَنَبِّيّ, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
        أَكُلَّمَا ٱغْتَالَ عَبْدُ السَّوْءِ سَيِّدَهُ / أَوْ خَانَهُ فَلَهُ فِي مِصْرَ تَمْهِيدُ
        صَارَ الْخَصِيُّ إِمَامَ الْآبِقِينَ بِهَا / فَٱلْحُرُّ مُسْتَعْبَدٌ وَٱلْعَبْدُ مَعْبُودُ
        نَامَتْ نَوَاطِيرُ مِصْرٍ عَنْ ثَعَالِبِهَا / فَقَدْ بَشِمْنَ وَمَا تَفْنَى العَنَاقِيدُ
        الْعَبْدُ لَيْسَ لِحُرٍّ صَالِحٍ بِأَخٍ / لَوْ أَنَّهُ فِي ثِيَابِ الْحُرِّ مَوْلُودُ
        لَا تَشْتَرِ الْعَبْدَ إِلَّا وَٱلْعَصَا مَعَهُ / إِنَّ الْعَبِيدَ لَأَنْجَاسٌ مَنَاكِيدُ
        مَا كُنْتُ أَحْسَبُنِي أَحْيَا إِلَى زَمَنٍ / يُسِيءُ بِي فِيهِ كَلْبٌ وَهْوَ مَحْمُودُ
        Can any fiendish slave who slew or stabbed his master find in Egypt refuge, there to be advanced?
        The Castrate King became the Chief of Runaways! The servants are revered; the freeman is disgraced!
        The Egyptian shepherds, they all are now asleep, and foxes roam, and all were drowsed with endless grapes!
        A freeman and a slave are neither peers nor brothers, though the slave may be in freemen's clothing raised.
        Never pay for any slave without the stick too: a slave, to noble men, is foul, and vile, and damned!
        I never thought that I would live and see a dog degrading me while he himself is hailed and praised!
DeclensionEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Maltese: għabid (obsolete, from the plural عَبِيد(ʿabīd))
  • Maranao: abdo

Pronunciation 2Edit

VerbEdit

عَبَدَ (ʿabada) I, non-past يَعْبُدُ‎‎ (yaʿbudu)

  1. to worship, to venerate
ConjugationEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit

VerbEdit

عَبَّدَ (ʿabbada) II, non-past يُعَبِّدُ‎‎ (yuʿabbidu)

  1. to enslave, to subjugate, to subject
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 26:22:
      وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَيَّ أَنْ عَبَّدْتَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
      watilka niʿmatun tamunnuhā ʿalayya ʾan ʿabbadta banī ʾisrāʾīla
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
ConjugationEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “عبد”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Libyan ArabicEdit

NounEdit

عبد (ʿabədm (عبيد(ʿbīd) and عبدّة(ʿbədda) pl [only for sense 1])

  1. slave
  2. (derogatory, ethnic slur) black man

VerbEdit

عبد (ʿbad)

  1. to worship

PersianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic عَبْد(ʿabd).

NounEdit

Dari عبد
Iranian Persian
Tajik абд (abd)

عبد ('abd)

  1. slave
  2. servant

SynonymsEdit


South Levantine ArabicEdit

Root
ع ب د

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عَبَدَ(ʿabada).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ʕa.bad/, [ˈʕa.bad]
  • (file)

VerbEdit

عبد (ʕabad) (form I, present بعبد(boʕbod))

  1. to worship
ConjugationEdit
    Conjugation of عبد (ʕabad)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m عبدت (ʕabadt) عبدت (ʕabadt) عبد (ʕabad) عبدنا (ʕabadna) عبدتو (ʕabadtu) عبدو (ʕabadu)
f عبدتي (ʕabadti) عبدت (ʕabdat)
present m بعبد (baʕbod) بتعبد (btoʕbod) بعبد (boʕbod) منعبد (mnoʕbod) بتعبدو (btoʕbodu) بعبدو (boʕbodu)
f بتعبدي (btoʕbodi) بتعبد (btoʕbod)
subjunctive m أعبد (ʔaʕbod) تعبد (toʕbod) يعبد (yoʕbod) نعبد (noʕbod) تعبدو (toʕbodu) يعبدو (yoʕbodu)
f تعبدي (toʕbodi) تعبد (toʕbod)
imperative m اعبد (oʕbod) اعبدو (oʕbodu)
f اعبدي (oʕbodi)

Etymology 2Edit

Learned borrowing from Arabic عَبَّدَ(ʿabbada).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ʕab.bad/, [ˈʕab.bad]
  • (file)

VerbEdit

عبّد (ʕabbad) (form II, present بعبّد(biʕabbed))

  1. to pave
    Synonym: زفّت(zaffat)
ConjugationEdit
    Conjugation of عبّد (ʕabbad)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m عبّدت (ʕabbadt) عبّدت (ʕabbadt) عبّد (ʕabbad) عبّدنا (ʕabbadna) عبّدتو (ʕabbadtu) عبّدو (ʕabbadu)
f عبّدتي (ʕabbadti) عبّدت (ʕabbadat)
present m بعبّد (baʕabbed) بتعبّد (bitʕabbed) بعبّد (biʕabbed) منعبّد (minʕabbed) بتعبّدو (bitʕabbdu) بعبّدو (biʕabbdu)
f بتعبّدي (bitʕabbdi) بتعبّد (bitʕabbed)
subjunctive m اعبّد (aʕabbed) تعبّد (tʕabbed) يعبّد (yʕabbed) نعبّد (nʕabbed) تعبّدو (tʕabbdu) يعبّدو (yʕabbdu)
f تعبّدي (tʕabbdi) تعبّد (tʕabbed)
imperative m عبّد (ʕabbed) عبّدو (ʕabbdu)
f عبّدي (ʕabbdi)