English edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English liknen (to be comparable; to compare (often disparagingly); to make (someone) equal to another person; to regard (something) as equal to another thing; to regard (something) as likely; to resemble; to take (something) as a substitute; to apply, be adapted or suitable; to tend (to sin)) [and other forms],[1] from liken (to be comparable; to compare; to be appropriate; to form),[2] from lik (alike, analogous, similar; appropriate, suitable; equal; homogeneous; identical, the same; indicative; likely (to be or do something), probable; possible; simultaneous; more or most like (?))[3] + -en (suffix forming infinitives of verbs).[4] Lik is derived from Old English ġelīċ (like, similar), from Proto-Germanic *galīkaz (like, similar; equal), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *leyg- (like, similar; even, level). The English word is analysable as like (adjective) +‎ -en (suffix forming verbs with the sense ‘to make [adjective]’).[5]

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

liken (third-person singular simple present likens, present participle likening, simple past and past participle likened)

  1. (transitive)
    1. Followed by to or (archaic) unto: to regard or state that (someone or something) is like another person or thing; to compare.
      Antonyms: contrast, unliken
      The physics teacher likened the effect of mass on space to an indentation in a sheet of rubber.
      • 1548 January 28 (Gregorian calendar), Hugh Latimer, “Sermon IV. By the Reverend Father in Christ Master Hugh Latimer Bishop of Worcester. Preached in the Shrouds at Paul’s Church in London the 18th Day of January, in the Year 1548.”, in The Sermons of the Right Reverend Father in God, Master Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester. [], volume I, London: [] J. Scott, [], published 1758, →OCLC, pages 41–42:
        And vvell may the preacher and plovvman be likened together: Firſt, for their labour in all ſeaſons of the year; for there is no time of the year in vvhich the ploughman hath not ſome ſpecial vvork to do. [] And then they alſo may be likened together for the diverſity of vvorks, and variety of offices that they have to do.
        The spelling has been modernized.
      • 1566, Thomas Heskyns, “Proving All Our Sacramentes Generallie to be More Excellent then the Sacramentes of Moyses”, in The Parliament of Chryste Auouching and Declaring the Enacted and Receaued Trueth of the Presence of His Bodie and Bloode in the Blessed Sacrament, [], Antwerp: [] William Silvius [], →OCLC, folio cclxxii, verso:
        In this ſaing S. Auguſtin likeneth the ſacramentes of the olde lavve in reſpect of the ſacramentes of the nevve lavve vnto childrens games, and our ſacramentes he likeneth to the thinges of more profett, vvhich are to be geuen to the ſonnes of God, vvhen they vvaxe of more age, knovvledge, and ripeneſſe.
      • 1579, Plutarke of Chæronea [i.e., Plutarch], “The Life of Sertorius”, in Thomas North, transl., The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romaines, [], London: [] Richard Field, →OCLC, page 626:
        Me thinkes therefore, that of all of the Græcian Captaines I can liken none ſo vvell vnto him, as Eumenes the Cardian.
      • c. 1596–1599 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Second Part of Henry the Fourth, []”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act II, scene i], page 79, column 2:
        [T]he Prince broke thy head for lik'ning him to a ſinging man of VVindſor; []
      • [1629], Iohn Gaule [i.e., John Gaule], Practique Theories: Or, Votiue Speculations, vpon Iesus Christs Prediction. Incarnation. Passion. Resurrection. [], London: [] [Thomas Cotes] for Iames Bowler, →OCLC, page 141:
        He merited not the Abaſement; vve vvere vvorthy the Damnation. Ah, ah my good Sauiour! A Nethermoſt depth cannot ſincke me lovv enough, ſince thou ſtoop'ſt to a Footſtoole. Thou likenedſt thee to me, I vvill compare me to Nothing: []
      • 1667, John Milton, “Book I”, in Paradise Lost. [], London: [] [Samuel Simmons], [], →OCLC; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, →OCLC, lines 484–486:
        [T]he Rebel King / Doubl'd that ſin in Bethel and in Dan, / Lik'ning his Maker to the Grazed Ox, []
      • 1748, [Samuel Richardson], “Letter II. Mr. Lovelace, to Joseph Leman.”, in Clarissa. Or, The History of a Young Lady: [], volume III, London: [] S[amuel] Richardson;  [], →OCLC, page 26:
        You vvill then be every one's favourite: and every good ſervant, for the future, vvill be proud to be liken'd to honeſt Joſeph Leman.
      • 1749, Henry Fielding, “Containing Five Pages of Paper”, in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume II, London: A[ndrew] Millar, [], →OCLC, book IV, pages 2–3:
        That our VVork, therefore, might be in no Danger of being likened to the Labours of theſe Hiſtorians, vve have taken every Occaſion of interſperſing through the vvhole ſundry Similes, Deſcriptions, and other kind of poetical Embelliſhments.
      • 1835 (date written; published 1835 December – 1836 January), Edgar Allan Poe, “Scenes from ‘Politian;’ an Unpublished Drama”, in The Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe: [], volumes II (Poems and Miscellanies), New York, N.Y.: J. S. Redfield, [], published 1850, →OCLC, Act IV, page 69:
        Why dost thou turn so pale? Not Conscience' self, / Far less a shadow which thou likenest to it, / Should shake the firm spirit thus.
      • 1840, [James Fenimore Cooper], chapter I, in Mercedes of Castile: Or, The Voyage to Cathay. [], volume I, Philadelphia, Pa.: Lea and Blanchard, →OCLC, page 20:
        In the name of all the devils, Roderique, of what art thou thinking, that thou likenest this knave to a young noble?
      • 1880, Standish [James] O’Grady, “Descent of the Red Branch”, in History of Ireland: Cuculain and His Contemporaries, volume II, London: Sampson Low, Searle, Marston, & Rivington, []; Dublin: E. Ponsonby, [], →OCLC, page 192:
        And the tufted isles which thou likenedst to the isles that rise from the face of some still gleaming lake—these are the peaks of the northern hills and the tops of the mountain ranges of the north, standing above the suspended steam of their host.
      • 2013 June 18, Chico Harlan, “After Fukushima, Japan beginning to see the light in solar energy”, in Alan Rusbridger, editor, The Guardian[2], volume 189, number 2, London: Guardian News & Media, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2022-10-15, page 30:
        Across Japan, technology companies and private investors are racing to install devices that until recently they had little interest in: solar panels. Massive solar parks are popping up as part of a rapid build-up that one developer likened to an "explosion."
    2. (also reflexive, rare) Chiefly followed by to: to make (oneself, someone, or something) resemble another person or thing.
      Antonym: unliken
      • 1838, Martin Farquhar Tupper, “Of Speaking”, in Proverbial Philosophy: A Book of Thoughts and Arguments, Originally Treated, London: Joseph Rickerby, [], →OCLC, stanza 1, page 133:
        Speech is reason's brother, and a kingly prerogative of man, / That likeneth him to his Maker, who spake, and it was done.
    3. (rare) To represent or symbolize (something).
  2. (intransitive, obsolete) Followed by to: to be like or resemble; also, to become like.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

Translations edit

References edit

  1. ^ līknen, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ līken, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  3. ^ līk, adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  4. ^ -en, suf.(3)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  5. ^ liken, v.”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “liken, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Anagrams edit

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from English like.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈlɑi̯kə(n)/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: li‧ken

Verb edit

liken

  1. (Internet) to like (on social media)
    Hebben jullie mijn pagina al geliket?
    Have you already liked my page?

Inflection edit

Inflection of liken (weak)
infinitive liken
past singular likete
past participle geliket
infinitive liken
gerund liken n
present tense past tense
1st person singular like likete
2nd person sing. (jij) liket likete
2nd person sing. (u) liket likete
2nd person sing. (gij) liket likete
3rd person singular liket likete
plural liken liketen
subjunctive sing.1 like likete
subjunctive plur.1 liken liketen
imperative sing. like
imperative plur.1 liket
participles likend geliket
1) Archaic.

German edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from English like + -en.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

liken (weak, third-person singular present likt or (proscribed) liket, past tense likte or (proscribed) likete, past participle gelikt or (proscribed) geliket or (proscribed) geliked, auxiliary haben)

  1. (transitive, social media) to like
    Coordinate term: faven
    • 2012, Claudia Hilker, Erfolgreiche Social-Media-Strategien für die Zukunft: Mehr Profit durch Facebook, Twitter, Xing und Co., Linde Verlag GmbH, →ISBN, page 94:
      Was Facebook-User liken und warum Der Like-Button hat die Online-Welt wie kein zweites Element revolutioniert.
      What Facebook users like, and why the like button has revolutionised the online world like no other element.
    • 2012, Tim Sebastian, Facebook Fanpages Plus, mitp Verlags GmbH & Co. KG, →ISBN, page 22:
      Egal ob Sie etwas schreiben, kommentieren oder liken, tun Sie dies im Namen der Fanpage.
      No matter whether you write something, comment, or like, do this in the name of the fanpage.
    • 2014, Markus Pfeifer, Facebook - Kommunikation und Interaktion mit dem Kunden: Eine Facebook-Marketing Analyse zu den Top 13 österreichischen Biermarken bezugnehmend auf die Interaktion und den Einfluss auf die Facebook Welt, Bachelor + Master Publication, →ISBN, page 50:
      Es wurde die Möglichkeit untersucht, ob ein Minderjähriger Facebook-User überhaupt die Befugnis hat bei den 13 auserwählten Bier Unternehmen deren Facebook-Seiten zu liken.
      It was checked whether an underage Facebook user actually had the ability to like the Facebook sites of the 13 selected beer companies.
    • 2014, Wolfgang H. Weinrich, Der liebe Gott kommt nicht voran, unnumbered page:
      Bin ich dann einer unter vielen und muss darauf warten, wer meine Follower sind und wer mich liked oder gar linkt?
      Am I then one among many, and must I pay attention to who my followers are and who likes me or even links me?
    • 2014, Katherine Womser, Wenn Fernsehen alleine nicht genug ist, page 183:
      Das war halt so wie man bei Facebook was postet und keiner antwortet und keiner liked das.
      That was like if you posted something on Facebook and no-one answeres or likes it.
    • 2023 January 11, Paul Weinheimer, “Ausstellung „Flying Foxes“: Kapitalismuskritik mit Megayacht”, in Die Tageszeitung: taz[3], →ISSN:
      Jeder Beitrag wird „gelikt“, danach wird weiter gewischt: Die Rolle der Use­r*in übernimmt ein Bot, er likt und scrollt.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Usage notes edit

  • Duden recommends conjugating the verb as if it were a standard German weak verb with the hypothetical stem lik-.[1] However, irregular conjugations that preserve some or all of the features of English grammar, especially the terminal e, are common.

Conjugation edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ 'Kritsanarat Khunkham (2013 July 8) “Heißt es "geliket" oder "geliked" oder "gelikt"?”, in Die Welt[1], archived from the original on 2013-07-15

Further reading edit

Middle Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

liken

  1. Alternative form of geliken
Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Dutch līcon, from Proto-West Germanic *līkēn, from Proto-Germanic *līkāną.

Verb edit

liken

  1. to please, (in archaic English usage) to like
Inflection edit

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants edit
  • Dutch: lijken

Further reading edit

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old English līcian, from Proto-West Germanic *līkēn.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

liken

  1. To like.

Conjugation edit

Descendants edit

References edit

Swedish edit

Noun edit

liken

  1. definite singular of like
  2. definite plural of lik

Anagrams edit

West Frisian edit

Noun edit

liken

  1. plural of lyk