subject

EnglishEdit

 
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Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English subget, from Old French suget, from Latin subiectus (lying under or near, adjacent, also subject, exposed), as a noun, subiectus (a subject, an inferior), subiectum (the subject of a proposition), past participle of subiciō (throw, lay, place), from sub (under, at the foot of) + iaciō (throw, hurl), as a calque of Ancient Greek ὑποκείμενον (hupokeímenon).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

subject (comparative more subject, superlative most subject)

  1. Likely to be affected by or to experience something.
    a country subject to extreme heat
    • c. 1678 (written), 1682 (published), John Dryden, Mac Flecknoe
      All human things are subject to decay.
    • 2013 June 22, “T time”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8841, page 68:
      The ability to shift profits to low-tax countries by locating intellectual property in them [] is often assumed to be the preserve of high-tech companies. [] current tax rules make it easy for all sorts of firms to generate [] “stateless income”: profit subject to tax in a jurisdiction that is neither the location of the factors of production that generate the income nor where the parent firm is domiciled.
    Menu listings and prices are subject to change.
    He's subject to sneezing fits.
  2. Conditional upon something; used with to.
    The local board sets local policy, subject to approval from the State Board.
  3. Placed or situated under; lying below, or in a lower situation.
  4. Placed under the power of another; owing allegiance to a particular sovereign or state.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin subiectus (a subject, an inferior), subiectum (the subject of a proposition), past participle of subiciō (throw, lay, place), from sub (under, at the foot of) + iaciō (throw, hurl).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

subject (plural subjects)

  1. (grammar) In a clause: the word or word group (usually a noun phrase) about whom the statement is made. In active clauses with verbs denoting an action, the subject and the actor are usually the same.
    In the sentence ‘The cat ate the mouse’, ‘the cat’ is the subject, ‘the mouse’ being the object.
  2. An actor; one who takes action.
    The subjects and objects of power.
  3. The main topic of a paper, work of art, discussion, field of study, etc.
    • 1667, John Milton, “Book 8”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: [] [Samuel Simmons], [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, OCLC 230729554:
      this subject for heroic song
    • 1695, John Dryden, transl., Observations on the Art of Painting by Charles Alphonse du Fresnoy:
      Make choice of a subject beautifull and noble, which [] shall [] afford [] an ample field of matter wherein to expatiate itself.
    • c. 1596–1598, William Shakespeare, “The Merchant of Venice”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene i]:
      I am th' unhappy subject of these quarrels. All these quarrels are about me.
    • 1905, Baroness Emmuska Orczy, chapter 5, in The Hocussing of Cigarette[1]:
      Then I had a good think on the subject of the hocussing of Cigarette, and I was reluctantly bound to admit that once again the man in the corner had found the only possible solution to the mystery.
    • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 5, in A Cuckoo in the Nest:
      The departure was not unduly prolonged. [] Within the door Mrs. Spoker hastily imparted to Mrs. Love a few final sentiments on the subject of Divine Intention in the disposition of buckets; farewells and last commiserations; a deep, guttural instigation to the horse; and the wheels of the waggonette crunched heavily away into obscurity.
  4. A particular area of study.
    Her favorite subject is physics.
    • 2014 June 14, “It's a gas”, in The Economist, volume 411, number 8891:
      One of the hidden glories of Victorian engineering is proper drains. [] But out of sight is out of mind. And that, together with the inherent yuckiness of the subject, means that many old sewers have been neglected and are in dire need of repair.
  5. A citizen in a monarchy.
    I am a British subject.
  6. A person ruled over by another, especially a monarch or state authority.
    • 2020, Alan Mikhail, God's Shadow, →ISBN, page 93:
      [] the Grand Khan seemed to grasp the "truth" of the religion and might become a convert, thereby gaining for Christianity the souls of all his subjects.
  7. (music) The main theme or melody, especially in a fugue.
    • 1878, William Smith Rockstro, "Subject" in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians
      The earliest known form of subject is the ecclesiastical cantus firmus, or plain song.
  8. A human, animal or an inanimate object that is being examined, treated, analysed, etc.
    • 1748, Conyers Middleton, Life of Cicero
      Writers of particular lives [] are apt to be prejudiced in favour of their subject.
    • 2010, Ursula James, Clinical Hypnosis Textbook: A Guide for Practical Intervention, page 73:
      It is also essential for those who come to the subject 'fresh' to gain the insight that will bridge their knowledge from being a subject of hypnosis to a potential practitioner.
    • 2013 July-August, Catherine Clabby, “Focus on Everything”, in American Scientist:
      Not long ago, it was difficult to produce photographs of tiny creatures with every part in focus. That’s because the lenses that are excellent at magnifying tiny subjects produce a narrow depth of field.
  9. (philosophy) A being that has subjective experiences, subjective consciousness, or a relationship with another entity.
  10. (logic) That of which something is stated.
  11. (mathematics) The variable in terms of which an expression is defined.
    Making x the subject of x2 − 6x + 3y = 0, we have x = 3 ± √(9 − 3y).
SynonymsEdit
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TranslationsEdit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Medieval Latin subiectō, iterative of subiciō (throw, lay, place), from sub (under, at the foot of) + iaciō (throw, hurl).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

subject (third-person singular simple present subjects, present participle subjecting, simple past and past participle subjected)

  1. (transitive, construed with to) To cause (someone or something) to undergo a particular experience, especially one that is unpleasant or unwanted.
    I came here to buy souvenirs, not to be subjected to a tirade of abuse!
  2. (transitive) To make subordinate or subservient; to subdue or enslave.

SynonymsEdit

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Further readingEdit