TranslingualEdit

Proper nounEdit

se

  1. (ISO country codes) Sweden

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Mandarin ().

PronunciationEdit

IPA(key): /sɛ/

NounEdit

se (plural ses)

  1. (music) A type of ancient Chinese plucked zither.

TranslationsEdit

See se/translations § Noun.

AnagramsEdit


AbinomnEdit

NounEdit

se

  1. cloud

AfrikaansEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • s'n (used without a following noun)
  • syn (obsolete)

EtymologyEdit

From Dutch zijn, z'n (his, its). An Afrikaans innovation is the use of se regardless of the number or gender of the possessor, which may be due to a merger with the Dutch genitive suffix -s.

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

se

  1. follows a noun to indicate that this noun possesses that which follows, much like English 's
    Dis my ouma se huis. — This is my grandmother’s house.

See alsoEdit


AlbanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Albanian *tśe(i), *tśi from Proto-Indo-European *kwe-, *kw(e)i- (how, what). Interrogative and relative pronoun, especially in connection with a preposition.

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. that, as, when
    Më duket se ke nevojë për disa shokë të rinj. — It seems to me that you need some new friends.
    Im vëlla më tha se don të bisedojë me ty rreth librit të ri. — My brother told me that he wants to talk to you about the new book.

Related termsEdit


BonanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Mongolic *usun.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

se

  1. water

ReferencesEdit

  • Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), Introduction, Grammar, and Sample Sentences for Baoan, SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS (Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA), November 1994
  • Henry G. Schwarz, The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey (1984), page 140: 'water' Daur os

BretonEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. that, this
    Petra eo se? — What's that?

CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronounEdit

se (enclitic, contracted 's, proclitic es, contracted proclitic s')

  1. himself, herself, itself (direct or indirect object)
  2. oneself (direct or indirect object)
  3. themselves (direct or indirect object)
  4. each other (direct or indirect object)

Usage notesEdit

The use of se and other direct personal pronouns can indicate the passive in Catalan.

DeclensionEdit


CimbrianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • ze (Sette Comuni)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German si(e) (they), merged from Old High German sie m pl, sio f pl, siu n pl, from Proto-Germanic *īz m, *ijôz f, *ijō n, the nominative plural forms of *iz. Cognate with German sie, Dutch zij.

PronounEdit

se

  1. (Luesrna) they

InflectionEdit

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

ReferencesEdit


CzechEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /sɛ/
  • (file)

PronounEdit

se (reflexive pronoun)

  1. (accusative) oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun sebe)
    myself
    yourself
    himself
    herself
    itself
    ourselves
    yourselves
    themselves

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

PrepositionEdit

se (also s)

  1. with

Further readingEdit


DalmatianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin .

PronounEdit

se

  1. (reflexive) oneself

DanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Danish se, from Old Norse (East) *sēa, (Old Norse (West) sjá), from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, cognate with English see, German sehen. From Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

se (imperative se, infinitive at se, present tense ser, past tense , perfect tense har set)

  1. to see
  2. (reciprocal passive) to see each other

ConjugationEdit

reciprocal


DimasaEdit

NumeralEdit

  1. one

EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Italian se, influenced by French si and Latin .

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if

EweEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

se (plural sewo)

  1. law

FalaEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Portuguese se, sse, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *se-.

PronounEdit

se

  1. used for passive constructions with transitive verbs and undetermined agent (equivalent to one)
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme II, Chapter 2: Recunquista:
      Non poemos analizar con pormenoris estis siglos, pero tampoco se debi toleral que, sin fundamentus, se poña en duda algo que a Historia documentá nos lega sobre nossa terra.
      We can’t thoroughly analyse these centuries, but one mustn’t tolerate that, unfoundedly, something documented history tells us about our land be questioned.
  2. reflexive and reciprocal: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, yourself; each other, one another
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Anexu: A Porcá:
      Cumían algu de herba por camiñus, se bañaban i os devulvían a casa por as tardis.
      They ate some pasture along the way, bathed themselves and were returned to their home in the afternoon.

SynonymsEdit

  • (reflexive): -si

FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

se n (genitive singular ses, plural se)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter C.

DeclensionEdit

Declension of se
n4 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative se seið se seini
accusative se seið se seini
dative se, sei senum seum seunum
genitive ses sesins sea seanna

FijianEdit

NounEdit

se

  1. flower
  2. gills

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. For plural forms, see etymology of ne.

The oblique stem si- is seen in some forms and is also found in other Finnic languages, such as the following cognates of the partitive singular sitä: Karelian sitä, Livvi sittäh, Veps sidä, Votic sitä. This is possibly a remnant of the original expected form **si (due to final e > i) which was reversed in some forms, possibly as influence from the plural ne.

The stem sii- seen in internal locative case forms may have been generalized from the plural forms as a means to distinguish from partitive/essive sitä, sinä; expected internal locative cases *sissä, *sistä may have been avoided as a dissimilation. Compare Veps siš (inessive singular of se).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈse/, [ˈs̠e̞]
  • Rhymes: -e
  • Syllabification: se

PronounEdit

se (stem se-, also si-, and sii-, see below)

  1. (demonstrative) it
  2. (demonstrative) that (when the speaker does not point at the thing, either physically or mentally)
  3. (colloquial and dialectal) he, she
  4. (colloquial) the (as a definite article; see the usage notes below)

Usage notesEdit

  • Due to the influence of Germanic languages, and nowadays especially to that of English, se may often be used as a kind of definite article in colloquial Finnish, though in standard Finnish it is ungrammatical, where word order expresses whether something is definite or indefinite. (Compare the usage of yksi.)
(standard) Mies tuli luokseni. → (colloquial) Se mies tuli mun luokse.
The man came to me.
(standard) Luokseni tuli mies. → (colloquial) Yks mies tuli mun luokse.
A man came to me.

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. that (not pointed at by the speaker)

InflectionEdit

Irregular.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Kven: se

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle French se, from Old French se, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun). See also soi.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se m or f (pre-vocalic s')

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    1. (to) himself
    2. (to) herself
    3. (to) oneself
    4. (to) itself
    5. (to) themselves
    6. (to) each other
  2. (Louisiana) The second-person plural reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronoun.
    Je suis partie à la chasse et faut vous autres se comportes bien.I'm going hunting and y'all need to behave yourselves.

Usage notesEdit

  • Se becomes s' before a vowel or unaspirated h, and sometimes, in nonstandard writing, in other cases where the e would be silent, e.g. in lyrics.
  • Se is often used with an actual subject, but it is also very often used with an abstract subject:
    Il est normal de se parler. — It is normal to talk to oneself.

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

See Template:French personal pronouns for other pronouns.

See alsoEdit

  • The other reflexive and reciprocal direct and indirect object pronouns: me, m', te, t', nous, vous.
  • The third-person reflexive and reciprocal disjunctive pronoun: soi.

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


GalicianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese se (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin .

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if

Etymology 2Edit

See the etymology of the main entry.

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. accusative/dative of si

ReferencesEdit

  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • se” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • se” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

GaroEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

NounEdit

se

  1. husband

German Low GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Low German , variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /zeː/, /seː/, /zɛɪ/, /sɛɪ/

PronounEdit

se

  1. she
    Se is Anke. — She is Anke (Annie).

PronounEdit

se

  1. they
    Se kaamt ut Bremen. — They come from Bremen.
    • 1861, G. Ungt, Twee Geschichten in Mönstersk Platt. Ollmanns Jans in de Friümde un Ollmanns Jans up de Reise, page 163:
      Dao gävven5 sick de Beiden dann auk an, datt se wier by ähr keimen.6
      5 gaben – gaben sich an – strengten sich an.   6 zu ihnen kamen.

See alsoEdit


Haitian CreoleEdit

EtymologyEdit

From French c'est (it is)

VerbEdit

se

  1. to be
  2. that is (compare French c'est)
  3. it is (compare French c'est)

Usage notesEdit

ReferencesEdit


HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

se (clitic)

  1. Alternative form of sem.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


IdoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Esperanto se.

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if
    La klerko komencus laborar se ilu povus. — The clerk would begin to work if he could.
    Se me povus, me komprus altra domo. — If I could, I would buy another house.

NounEdit

se (plural se-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter S/s.

See alsoEdit


IngrianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. this, that
  2. it (inanimate)

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. this, that

DeclensionEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[2], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 99
  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 514
  • Vitalij Chernyavskij (2005) Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja)[3], page 16
  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachinkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[4], →ISBN, pages 13-14

InterlinguaEdit

PronounEdit

se (third person)

  1. Reflexive: oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves.
    Illa se videva in le speculo.She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. Reciprocal: each other, one another.
    Quando illes se cognosceva?When did they meet (each other)?
  3. Used for passive constructions with undetermined agent (translated by "one").
    De mi casa se vide le mar.From my house the sea is seen.
    (Literally, “...the sea sees itself.”)
  4. Hence, used for expressions of the type "to get/become ...-ed".
    espaventar — “to frighten”; espaventar se = "to get frightened" (lit., "to frighten oneself")

Usage notesEdit

  • (reflexive, reciprocal, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, each other, one another): Many verbs bear a reflexive pronoun by default. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc., according to the subject.
    infiltrar se — “to infiltrate”
    repentir se — “to repent”

IstriotEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin .

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      Biela, se ti vedissi li galiere
      Beautiful one, if you saw the galleys

ItalianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Late Latin se, from Latin ,[1] from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if
    Se non è vero, è ben trovato.
    If it is not true, it is a good story.
  2. whether
  3. if only
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of si
  2. Alternative spelling of
Usage notesEdit

Used when followed by a third-person direct object clitic (lo, la, li, le, or ne).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

se

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

KalashaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sanskrit (sa), सा (), from Proto-Indo-European *só.

PronounEdit

se

  1. he/she/it (absent from speaker) (3rd-person personal pronoun)

Coordinate termsEdit

See alsoEdit

See Template:kls-personal pronouns for further pronouns.


KarelianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. this, that

PronounEdit

se

  1. this, that
  2. it (inanimate)

DeclensionEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • P. M. Zaykov (1999) Грамматика Карельского языка (фонетика и морфология) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)], →ISBN, page 58

KvenEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Finnish se, from Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe.

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. this, that

PronounEdit

se

  1. this, that
  2. he, she, it

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Eira Söderholm (2017) Kvensk grammatikk, Tromsø: Cappelen Damm Akademisk, →ISBN, page 278

LadinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin .

PronounEdit

se

  1. (indefinite) one, you, we, they, people. Note: often translated using the passive voice in English.
  2. (reflexive) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves; (reciprocal) each other, one another. Note: With some verbs, si is not translated in English.

LashiEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

se

  1. to know
  2. to be able to

ReferencesEdit

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid[5], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

  1. the accusative of the reflexive pronoun meaning himself, herself, itself, themselves
    amat.
    He loves himself.
    Necessario aperiunt.
    They were forced to open themselves.
    In marī praecipitāvit.
    He drowned himself in the sea.
  2. the ablative of the reflexive pronoun meaning by himself, by herself, by itself, by themselves

Usage notesEdit

  • There is little distinction made between the accusative forms and sēsē as the two forms are used indifferently, except that sēsē is preferred where emphasis is intended (especially in reference to a preceding ipse, or at the beginning or the end of a clause).

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit


LigurianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Late Latin se(d), from Latin (if) + quid (what).

PronunciationEdit

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if

LivonianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

PronounEdit

se

  1. that
  2. he

Lower SorbianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself
  2. each other, one another
  3. used to form passives

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • se in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.

LuxembourgishEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. unstressed form of si

DeclensionEdit

See Template:lb-decl-personal pronouns for declension.


MalayEdit

Malay cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : se

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Shortened form of esa, from Proto-Malayic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *əsa, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əsa, from Proto-Austronesian *əsa.

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

se (Jawi spelling س)

  1. one

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit


MalteseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Sometimes thought to have been inherited from Arabic سَ(sa), from سَوْفَ(sawfa). However, it is more likely that the similarity is entirely coincidental and that Maltese se(r) is merely a shortened form of sejjer.

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

se

  1. Indicates a future tense.

MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

se

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle DutchEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. accusative of si (they)

Middle EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old English swē, swǣ, variants of swā (so). More at so.

AdverbEdit

se

  1. so

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of see (sea)

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of see (see)

Etymology 4Edit

PronounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of sche

Middle FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old French se, from Latin .

PronounEdit

se

  1. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal direct object pronoun.
    1. himself
    2. herself
    3. oneself
    4. itself
    5. themselves
    6. each other
  2. The third-person reflexive and reciprocal indirect object pronoun.
    1. to himself
    2. to herself
    3. to oneself
    4. to itself
    5. to themselves
    6. to each other
      ils se donnerent bataillethey gave each other battle (they gave battle to each other)

Usage notesEdit

  • Whether to translate as himself, herself, oneself, itself, themselves or each other depends on the gender (male, female or none) and number (singular or plural).
  • Usually becomes s' before a vowel. In older manuscripts, it becomes s- with no apostrophe.

DescendantsEdit

  • French: se

Middle Low GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Variously from Old Saxon sia and Old Saxon siu, ultimately developed from forms of Proto-Germanic *hiz and possibly influenced by Proto-Germanic *sa.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

  1. (third person singular female nominative) she
  2. her (accusative of )
  3. (third person plural nominative) they
  4. them (accusative of )

DeclensionEdit

See Template:gml-perpron for declension.

DescendantsEdit


NeapolitanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin .

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. reflexive third person pronoun: oneself, himself, itself, herself, themselves etc.

North FrisianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Frisian siā, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną

PronunciationEdit

IPA(key): /sɛ/

VerbEdit

se (present se, 2nd singular sjochst, 3rd singular sjocht, past saag, perfect sen)

  1. (Sylt) to see

Northern KurdishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From West Iranian *spaka "dog-like, relating to dogs" (compare Old Median σπάκα (dog), Persian سگ(sag), and Old Armenian ասպակ (aspak, dog), a borrowing from Median), from Proto-Iranian [Term?] (compare Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬁(spā), Pashto سپۍ(spəy)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian [Term?] (compare Sanskrit श्वन् (śvā́)), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ.

NounEdit

Central Kurdish سەگ(seg)

se ?

  1. dog

Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

se (imperative se, present tense ser, passive ses or sees, simple past , past participle sett, present participle seende)

  1. to see (perceive with the eyes).

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


NovialEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. (reflexive) himself; herself; itself; themselves

Usage notesEdit

  • Used only for the third person.

Old EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • þēlate nom. masc. sg. form

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *siz, replacing earlier *sā, from Proto-Germanic *sa, from Proto-Indo-European *só.

PronunciationEdit

ArticleEdit

  1. the
    mōnathe moon
    sēo sunnethe sun
    þæt seofonstierrethe Pleiades
    þā steorranthe stars

DeterminerEdit

  1. that
    Sele mē þone hamer.
    Give me that hammer.
    Cūðes þū þā rēadfiexan þe þū ǣr wiþ sprǣċe?
    Did you know that redhead who you were talking to earlier?

PronounEdit

  1. that
    Hē fōr hām, and æfter þām ne ġeseah iċ hine nǣfre mā.
    He went home, and after that I never saw him again.
    • early 8th century, Beowulf, line 11
      Þæt wæs gōd cyning!
      That was a good king!
  2. also sometimes used (in the appropriate gender and case) to mean "he," "she," "it," "they," etc.
  3. the one / that one
    Iċ eom þe cnocaþ.
    I am the one who knocks.
    Hēo nis sēo þe þū oferreċċan þearft.
    She's not the one you need to convince.
    Rǣtst þū nū þās bōc oþþe þā?
    Are you reading this book right now or that one?
    Hwæðer is þīn, þē þæt swearte hors þē þæt hwīte?
    Which one is yours, the black horse or the white one?
  4. (relative) that, who, what
    Ne biþ eall þæt glitnaþ nā gold.
    Not everything that glitters is gold.
    • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Manuscript E, year 605
      Þǣr man ofslōg ēac twā hund prēosta þā cōmon þæder þæt hīe sċylden ġebiddan for Wēala here. Sċromail wæs ġehāten heora ealdor, ætbærst þanon fīftiga sum.
      There two hundred priests were killed who had come to pray for the Welsh army. Scromail was the name of their leader, who was one of fifty to escape from there.
    • c. 900, King Alfred's translation of The Consolation of Philosophy
      Wel mē līcode þæt þū ǣr sæġdes.
      I really liked what you said before.

DeclensionEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • The word "the" was used somewhat more sparingly in Old English than in the modern language. One reason is, English had only recently developed a word for "the" ( previously only meant "that"), leaving many nouns and phrases which had a definite meaning but which people continued to use without a definite article out of custom. Examples of words which usually went without the word "the" include:
    • Names of peoples, such as Engle (the Angles), Seaxan (the Saxons), and Crēcas (the Greeks). Ġelīefst þū þæt Dene magon bēon oferswīðde? (“Do you believe the Danes can be defeated?”).
    • All river names. On Temese flēat ān sċip (“A boat was floating on the Thames”).
    • A few nouns denoting types of locations, namely (the sea), wudu (the woods), and eorþe (the ground). Þū fēolle on eorðan and slōge þīn hēafod (“You fell on the ground and hit your head”). Note that eorþe was often used with a definite article when it meant "the Earth."
    • "the world," whether expressed with weorold or middanġeard. Iċ fēle æt hām on ealre weorolde, þǣr þǣr sind wolcnu and fuglas and mennisċe tēaras (“I feel at home in the whole world, where there are clouds and birds and human tears”).
    • A couple abstract concepts, namely sōþ (the truth) and ǣ (the law). Iċ seċġe ēow sōþ, þæt iċ swerie (“I'm telling you the truth, I swear”).
    • Dryhten (“the Lord”).
    • morgen (the morning) and ǣfen (the evening). Iċ ārās on lætne morgen and ēode niðer (“I got up late in the morning and went downstairs”).
    • The four seasons, lengten (spring), sumor (summer), hærfest (fall), and winter (winter). On sumore hit biþ wearm and on wintra ċeald (“In the summer it's warm and in the winter it's cold”).
    • forþġewitennes (the past), andweardnes (the present), and tōweardnes (the future). Þā þe forðġewitennesse ġemunan ne magon, hīe bēoþ ġeniðrode hīe tō ġeedlǣċenne (“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”).
    • forma sīþ (“the first time”), ōþer sīþ (“the second time”), etc. Hwæt þōhtest þū þā þū mē forman sīðe ġemēttest? (“What did you think when you met me for the first time?”).
    • þīestra (“the dark”). Iċ āwēox, ac iċ nǣfre ne ġeswāc mē þīestra tō ondrǣdenne (“I grew up, but I never stopped being scared of the dark”).
    • Genitive phrases could include the word "the" before the head noun, but most often did not. Instead, genitive phrases were commonly formed like possessive phrases in modern English, with the genitive noun preceding the head noun ("John's car," not "the car of John"). Thus “the fall of Rome” was Rōme hryre, literally “Rome's fall,” and “the god of fire” was fȳres god, literally “fire's god.”

DescendantsEdit


Old FrenchEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin (himself, herself, itself), accusative of reflexive pronoun.

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

se m or f (invariable)

  1. himself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  2. herself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  3. itself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  4. oneself (reflexive direct and indirect third-person singular pronoun)
  5. themselves (reflexive direct and indirect third-person plural pronoun)
DescendantsEdit
  • French: se

Etymology 2Edit

From Latin si.

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if
  2. then (afterwards; following)
DescendantsEdit
  • French: si

Old FrisianEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. she
  2. they

Old IrishEdit

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of so used after palatalized consonants and front vowels

Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *sa.

PronunciationEdit

ArticleEdit

 m (demonstrative)

  1. definite article: the
    mānothe moon
  2. demonstrative adjective: that, those
    Hē gaf thē gift.He gave that gift.

DeclensionEdit

See alsoEdit


Pennsylvania GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare German sie.

PronounEdit

se

  1. she
  2. her

DeclensionEdit


PhaluraEdit

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. that (agr: rem fem / rem non-nom masc)

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. the
  2. those (agr: rem)

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 3Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. it
  2. she (rem fem nom)

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 4Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se (demonstrative, Perso-Arabic spelling سےۡ)

  1. they (rem nom)

ReferencesEdit

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[9], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

PilagáEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. I
    se-takeI want

ReferencesEdit

  • 2001, Alejandra Vidal, quoted in Subordination in Native South-American Languages

PipilEdit

Pipil cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal :
    Ordinal : achtu
    Adverbial : seujti
    Distributive : sejsē ika

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *sɨmayV. Compare Classical Nahuatl ce (one). Cognate with Hopi suukya' (one), Shoshone seme' (one), Cahuilla súplli (one), and O'odham hema (one).

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

  1. one
    Nikneki semaya se
    I want only one

ArticleEdit

  1. a, indefinite article
    Tikitat se tekulut tik ne kwajkwawit
    We saw an owl in the trees

PronounEdit

  1. someone, something, indefinite pronoun
    Walajsik se ina ka metzishmati
    Someone came who said she/he knows you
    Se anmejemet nemi pal yawi pal kikua ne takwal
    One of you has to go to buy the food
    Ne nunan nechmakak se anmupal
    My mom gave me something for you all

PolishEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. (colloquial) oneself, myself, yourself, itself, etc.
    Synonym: sobie
    Daj se z tym spokój.
    Give it a break.

Further readingEdit

  • se in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • se in Polish dictionaries at PWN

PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese sse, se, from Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronounEdit

se m or f

  1. third-person singular and plural reflexive pronoun; himself; herself; itself; themself; themselves
    Ela se viu no espelho.
    She saw herself in the mirror.
  2. third-person singular and plural reciprocal pronoun; each other; one another
    Quando eles se conheceram?
    When did they meet (each other)?
  3. second-person singular and plural reflexive and reciprocal pronoun, when used with second-person pronouns other than tu and vós; yourself; yourselves
    E você se diz um professor!
    And you call yourself a teacher!
  4. forms the passive voice; be; get
    espantarto frighten
    espantar-seto get frightened (Literally, “to frighten oneself”)
    Da minha casa se vê o mar.
    The sea can be seen from my house. (Literally, "From my house oneself sees the sea.")
  5. impersonal reflexive pronoun; oneself
    Vive-se bem em Belém.
    One lives well in Belém. (Literally, *"∅ lives oneself well in Belém.")
Usage notesEdit
  • When the verb precedes se, a hyphen must be used. In Portugal post-verb se is more common, while in Brazil it usually precedes the verb.
  • (reflexive and reciprocal): Many verb senses take a reflexive pronoun by default; they are called pronominal verbs. Se must be replaced by me, te, etc. according to the subject.
    comunicar-se (com)to communicate (with)
    arrepender-seto repent
  • Many ergative English verbs are translated by a bare verb for transitive usage and a pronominal one for intransitive:
    O professor acalmou os alunos.
    The teacher calmed the students down.
    O professor acalmou-se.
    The teacher calmed down.
QuotationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

See alsoEdit

See Template:Portuguese personal pronouns for further pronouns.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Portuguese se, from Latin (if).

Alternative formsEdit

  • si (eye dialect)

ConjunctionEdit

se

  1. if (introduces a condition)
    • 2007, J. K. Rowling, Lya Wyler, Harry Potter e as Relíquias da Morte, Rocco, page 317:
      Desculpe, acho que dá mais medo se for meia-noite!
      I'm sorry, I thought it would be more fearsome if it were midnight!}}
    Se for sair, leve um guarda-chuva.
    If you go out, take an umbrella.
    Só começaremos se nos pagarem.
    We will only begin if they pay us.
    Synonym: caso
QuotationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:se.

AntonymsEdit

RomanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. (reflexive pronoun) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Related termsEdit


RomanschEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) si
  • (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) sen
  • (Puter, Vallader)

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

AdverbEdit

se

  1. (Sutsilvan, Surmiran) up, upward, upwards

Rwanda-RundiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Bantu *cé.

NounEdit

 1a (plural bāsé 2a)

  1. his/her father
  2. his/her paternal uncle

SamoanEdit

ArticleEdit

se

  1. a (singular indefinite article)

See alsoEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

PronounEdit

se (Cyrillic spelling се)

  1. oneself (clitic form of reflexive pronoun)
    1. myself
    2. yourself
    3. himself, herself, itself
    4. ourselves
    5. yourselves
    6. themselves
  2. (by extension, impersonal) Used to convey the meaning of the English passive voice in the third person where the impersonal subject does the verb unto itself
    Kako se zoveš?What's your name? (literally, “What do you call yourself?”)
    Kako se to kaže na španjolskom?How is that said in Spanish? / How do you say that in Spanish? (literally, “How does it say itself in Spanish?”)
    Ovdje se govori španjolskiSpanish is spoken here (literally, “Spanish speaks itself here.”)
    Svjetska prvenstva se igraju ljeti.World Cups are played during the summer. (literally, “World Cups play themselves during the summer.”)
DeclensionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Slavic *sь.

ParticleEdit

se (Cyrillic spelling се)

  1. (obsolete) this is; here is
    • 1404, anonymous, Kočerin tablet:
      се лежи вигань милошевиꙉь
      Here lies Viganj Milošević

SloveneEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *sę.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. oneself: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself (accusative)
  2. ourselves, yourselves, themselves (accusative)

InflectionEdit

See Template:sl-decl-ppron for inflection.


SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin , from Proto-Indo-European *swé (reflexive pronoun).

PronounEdit

se m or f (third person, including ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes)

  1. Third person (also used for usted and ustedes) reflexive direct or indirect object oneself, himself, herself, itself, yourself; each other; one another
  2. Used to convey the meaning of the English passive voice in the third person and with usted and ustedes.
    ¿Cómo se llama?What is your name? (literally, “How do you call yourself?”)
    Se dice que...It is said that... (literally, “It says itself that...”)
    Aquí se habla españolSpanish is spoken here / They speak Spanish here. (literally, “Spanish speaks itself here.”)
Usage notesEdit
  • (third person (and used for ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes’) reflexive): Se is used as a suffix with verbs in the infinitive and imperative.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Spanish ge (from Latin illī, compare Portuguese lhe, Italian gli), whose pronunciation shifted from /ʒe/ to /ʃe/ in Early Modern Spanish, at which point it was reanalyzed as /se/ (rather than shifting to /xe/ as expected).

Alternative formsEdit

  • ge (archaic)

PronounEdit

se m or f (third person, including ‘usted’ and ‘ustedes)

  1. Used instead of indirect object pronouns le and les before the direct object pronouns lo, la, los, or las.
    El samaritano se las dio. — “The Samaritan gave them to him.”

See alsoEdit

See Appendix:Spanish pronouns for an overview of Spanish pronouns and Template:es-personal pronouns for a pronoun table.

Etymology 3Edit

VerbEdit

se (main verb saber)

  1. Misspelling of .

Further readingEdit


Sranan TongoEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Dutch zee.

NounEdit

se

  1. sea

SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Swedish sēa, , sīa, from Old Norse séa, sjá, from Proto-Germanic *sehwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to see, notice). The final -g of the past tense form was added under influence of the Old Swedish plural form sāgho.

Cognate with Danish se, Norwegian Nynorsk sjå and Icelandic sjá, English see, German sehen and Dutch zien.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

se (present ser, preterite såg, supine sett, imperative se)

  1. to see; use one's sight
    Synonyms: titta, kolla, stirra
    • 1888, August Strindberg, Fröken Julie
      Tvärtom, fröken Julie, som ni ser har jag skyndat uppsöka min övergivna!
      Quite the opposite, miss Julie, as you can see I have rushed to find my abandoned one!
    • 1915, John Wahlborg, Stjärnbanér i blågult
      Vad jag sett och hört och känt har helt enkelt överväldigat mig.
      What I have seen and heard and felt has quite simply overwhelmed me.
  2. to see; to understand
    Synonyms: förstå, fatta, begripa
    Jag ser inte hur det skulle kunna vara möjligt.I don't see how that could be possible.
  3. to see, to visualize; to form a mental picture of

ConjugationEdit

HypernymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


TarantinoEdit

PronounEdit

se (impersonal, reflexive)

  1. it
  2. one

Tocharian AEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *suHyús. Cognate with Tocharian B soy, Old Armenian ուստր (ustr) and Ancient Greek υἱύς (huiús).

NounEdit

se m

  1. son

See alsoEdit


TurkishEdit

NounEdit

se

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S.

TuvaluanEdit

ArticleEdit

se (indefinite article)

  1. a, an

VepsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *se, from Proto-Uralic *śe. Cognates include Finnish se and Estonian see.

PronounEdit

se

  1. it

InflectionEdit

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

DeterminerEdit

se

  1. that (far)

InflectionEdit

See Template:vep-decl-se for inflection.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007) , “та, то, тот”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

VolapükEdit

PrepositionEdit

se

  1. out of

WelshEdit

VerbEdit

se (not mutable)

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of basai.

West FrisianEdit

PronounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of sy (she)

PronounEdit

se

  1. Alternative form of sy (they)

ZazakiEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

se

  1. how
  2. if
  3. what

NumeralEdit

se

  1. hundred
  2. Alternative form of sed