Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₁ésti

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Athematic root present of the root *h₁es-.

VerbEdit

*h₁ésti (imperfective)[1]

  1. to be

InflectionEdit

Imperfective, athematic, active only
3rd singular *h₁ésti
3rd plural *h₁sénti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *h₁ésmi *h₁ésm̥ *h₁ésoh₂ *h₁syéh₁m̥
2nd singular *h₁ési *h₁és *h₁és, *h₁sdʰí *h₁ésesi *h₁syéh₁s
3rd singular *h₁ésti *h₁ést *h₁éstu *h₁éseti *h₁syéh₁t
1st dual *h₁swós *h₁swé *h₁ésowos *h₁sih₁wé
2nd dual *h₁stés *h₁stóm *h₁stóm *h₁ésetes *h₁sih₁tóm
3rd dual *h₁stés *h₁stā́m *h₁stā́m *h₁ésetes *h₁sih₁tā́m
1st plural *h₁smós *h₁smé *h₁ésomos *h₁sih₁mé
2nd plural *h₁sté *h₁sté *h₁sté *h₁ésete *h₁sih₁té
3rd plural *h₁sénti *h₁sént *h₁séntu *h₁ésonti *h₁sih₁ént
Participle *h₁sónts

DescendantsEdit

  • Anatolian: *ʔésti (see there for further descendants)
  • Albanian: *esmi
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic: *bū́ˀtei
  • Celtic: *esti (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *wesaną (*immi, *izi, *isti etc.) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *ehmi
  • Indo-Iranian: *Hásti (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: *som, *ezom
    • Latin: sum (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian:
    • Tocharian B: ste (is)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN