Alemannic German

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Etymology

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From Old High German ir, from Proto-Germanic *jīz, a variant of *jūz.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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ir

  1. you (plural)

Declension

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Aragonese

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin īre.

Verb

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ir

  1. go

Chuukese

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Pronoun

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ir

  1. them
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Danish

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Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology

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Either the old word for "copper" or some derivation from it: Old Danish eer (copper), Old Norse eir, from Proto-Germanic *aiz.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈiɐ̯], [ˈiɐ̯ˀ]

Noun

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ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Elfdalian

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Verb

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ir

  1. singular present of wårå

Galician

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Etymology

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From Old Galician-Portuguese ir, from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /b/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.

Verb

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ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)
ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fum or fui, past participle ido, reintegrationist norm)

  1. to go
  2. to work, function, run
    Vai ou non vai? —Non vai.
    Does that work or does it not work? No, it doesn't work.

Conjugation

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Derived terms

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See also

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References

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  • Ernesto González Seoane, María Álvarez de la Granja, Ana Isabel Boullón Agrelo (20062022) “ir”, in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval (in Galician), Santiago de Compostela: ILG
  • ir” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • ir” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • ir” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Interlingua

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Etymology

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From Latin īre, active present infinitive of ; which its conjugation also influenced by French aller (present indicatives vais, vas, va, and vont all from Latin vadō).

Verb

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ir

  1. to go

Conjugation

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Antonyms

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Kaera

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Etymology

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From Proto-Alor–Pantar *jira.

Noun

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ir

  1. water

References

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  • Gary Holton and Laura Robinson, The Internal History of the Alor-Pantar language family, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • Marian Klamer, One item, many faces: ‘come’ in Teiwa (2010, in wing & Klamer) and Kaera (2014, in Schapper)
  • Gary Holton, Marian Klamer, František Kratochvíl, Laura C. Robinson, Antoinette Schapper, The Historical Relations of the Papuan Languages of Alor and Pantar, Oceanic Linguistics 2012:1

Latgalian

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Etymology

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Shortened form of irā, from Proto-Baltic *irā. Akin to Latvian ir.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ir/
  • Hyphenation: ir

Verb

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ir

  1. third-person indicative present of byut

Usage notes

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  • ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while irā is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

References

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  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 48

Latin

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Cognate with Ancient Greek χείρ (kheír).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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ir n sg (indeclinable, no genitive)

  1. (rare, anatomy) hand

Declension

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Not declined; used only in the nominative and accusative singular, singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative ir
Genitive
Dative
Accusative ir
Ablative
Vocative

Synonyms

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References

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  • ir”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ir in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.

Latvian

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Baltic *irā (cf. dialectal, archaic forms irād, iraid, irāg, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic єстъ (estŭ), Russian есть (jestʹ), Lithuanian dialectal ẽsti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential (“there is”) meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm (I am) is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *irā is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè (look!)), the particle and conjunction ir (both... and...), a noun with the meaning “existence,” “reality,” “thing,” or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -extension.[1]

Pronunciation

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Verb

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ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; third-person singular present indicative of būt
  2. (they) are; third-person plural present indicative of būt
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; third-person singular imperative of būt
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; third-person plural imperative of būt

Etymology 2

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From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *h₂r̥ of Proto-Indo-European *h₂er- (so, then; question particle) (whence also Latvian ar (with); see there for more). The original meaning “and” (compare Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian ir̃ (and), Old Prussian ir (also), er ((along) with), Ancient Greek ἄρα, ἄρ', ῥά (ára, ár', rhá, so, then, therefore).[1]

Conjunction

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ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    gribējas ir smieties, ir raudātone wanted both to laugh and to cry
    nāca ir jaunie, ir vecieboth the young and the old came
    tolaik ir tēvs, ir māte bija mirušiat that time, both the father and the mother had died
    tā bija droša, interesanta un glīta meitene, kas prata būt ir jautra, ir nopietnathat was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts kā jau nakts: ir mēness spīd, ir tālē rūsa plaiksnīthe night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms
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Particle

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ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. arī
    Ludis nolēca lielā dubļu pančkā un tur ir palika, ratiem pakaļ skatīdamiesLudis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    Dūdums pateica: “man vēl laika diezgan”, un pārliecināt viņu par piegādes normu nodošanu pirms termiņa tā ir neizdevās — Dūdums said: “I still have enough time,” and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for delivery before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas viņam ir prātā nenākthat doesn't even come to his mind
    krūmos ir pa naktīm guļot, pilsētā viņš parādoties retireally sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Karulis, Konstantīns (1992) “ir”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Lithuanian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ir (and, also), compare Latvian ir, Old Prussian ir (and, even), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥- (thus, so); compare Ancient Greek ἄρα (ára, so, then, consequently). If the original meaning was "fittingly, accordingly", the root may be identical to *h₂er- (fit together), see artì (near) for more.

Proto-Slavic *i (and, even) is probably not related.

Conjunction

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ir̃

  1. (coordinating, cumulative) and, too
  2. (coordinating, illative) and, so
    Bùvo gražùs óras, ir̃ mẽs nùtarėme keliáuti. - the weather was nice, and (=so) we decided to travel.
  3. (coordinating, correlative) bothand

Particle

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ir̃

  1. (emphatic) even, and
    Mán ir̃ nepavỹko padarýt! - I didn't even manage that!
  2. (emphatic) exactly, just, precisely
    Jìs ir̃ yrà tàs žmogùs, apiẽ kùrį kal̃bame. - It's him that we're talking about
  3. (interrogative) and, so
    , ir̃ kàs! - So what!
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Middle Dutch

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Etymology

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From Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, from Proto-Germanic *jūz. Compare German ihr.

Pronoun

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ir

  1. ye, you (plural) (only in Southeastern texts)

Further reading

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ir - instituut voor de Nederlandse taal

Middle English

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Etymology 1

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Determiner

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ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (her)

Pronoun

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ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (hers)

Etymology 2

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Pronoun

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ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (her)

Middle High German

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Etymology

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From Old High German ir, from Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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ir

  1. you: nominative plural of du

Descendants

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  • Alemannic German: ir
  • Bavarian:
  • Central Franconian: ühr, ihr, dihr (d- from verb ending by rebracketing)
  • German: ihr
  • Rhine Franconian:
    • Pennsylvania German: dihr
  • Yiddish: איר (ir), איהר (ihr)Daytshmerish

Mòcheno

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Etymology

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From Middle High German ir, from Old High German ir, from Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, from Proto-Germanic *jīz. Cognate with German ihr, English ye.

Pronoun

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ir

  1. you (plural)

Inflection

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Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

References

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Old High German

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronoun

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ir

  1. you (second-person plural pronoun)
  2. (polite) you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • late 9th century, Otfrid of Weissenburg, Letter to Bishop Salomo of Constance v. 5-7:
      Lékza ih therara búachi / iu sentu in suábo richi,
      thaz ir irkíaset ubar ál, / oba siu frúma wesan scal;
      Oba ir hiar fíndet iawiht thés / thaz wírdig ist thes lésannes:
      I send to you in Swabia the selection of books,
      so that you can decide above all if it will be useful;
      [and] if you find here something that is worthy of being read.
      (quoted in and tr. by Horst J. Simon in Taavitsainen & Jucker 2003:88)

Usage notes

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Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in Modern German Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in late Old High German.

Inflection

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Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih

Descendants

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References

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  1. Armitage, Lionel. (1911) An Introduction to the study of Old High German, p 200.

Old Swedish

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Old East Norse *īʀ (compare West Norse ér), from Proto-Germanic *jīz, variant of *jūz.

Pronoun

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īr

  1. you (plural)

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Swedish: I, ni (← hafven I)

Old Welsh

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Etymology

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Ultimately from Proto-Celtic *sindos.

Pronunciation

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Article

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ir

  1. (definite article) the
    • 9th c., Oxoniensis Prior (Bodleian Library, Oxford), v. 234:
      ir pimphet eterin
      the fifth bird

Descendants

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Portuguese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /v/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.

Pronunciation

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Verb

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ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive, or transitive with para or a or em or até) to go (to move to a destination)
    Vamos a pé?
    Do we go on foot?
    Eles foram ao centro comercial.
    They went to the shopping centre.
    Queríamos ir para casa.
    We wanted to go home.
  2. (auxiliary, with an infinitive) will; to be going to; forms the future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato.
    I will buy a shoe.
    Nós não íamos fazer nada.
    We weren’t going to do anything.
  3. (auxiliary, with a gerund) to keep on; to go on; ~ on; forms the continuative aspect
    A água vai escorrendo até acabar.
    The water keeps on leaking until it is all gone.
  4. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to go; to leave; to depart
    Os homens já se foram todos.
    All the men have left already.
  5. (intransitive, or transitive with para or em or a) to attend; to go to (to be present in an event)
    Sinto muito, não poderei ir à sua festa.
    I’m sorry, I won’t be able to go to your party.
  6. (transitive with até) to go on until; to last to
    A batalha foi até as duas da manhã.
    The battle went on until two AM.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with em) to do; to fare (to have a good or bad result)
    Fui muito mal em quase todas as provas.
    I did very bad in nearly all the tests.
  8. (intransitive) to be doing (formula used in greetings)
    “Como vai?” “Vou bem, obrigado.”
    “How are you doing?” “I am doing fine, thanks.”
  9. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to be gone (depleted, destroyed; no longer usable)
    Porcaria! Minha TV se foi.
    Damn it! My TV is gone.
  10. (euphemistic, takes a reflexive pronoun) to leave (to die); to depart (to die)
    Uma oração para os que já se foram.
    A prayer for those who have already left us.
  11. (intransitive) to go (to begin an action or process)
    Um, dois, três, vai!
    One, two, three, go!
    O sinal verde ainda não foi!
    The green light still didn’t light up.
    Vamos!
    Get on with it!
  12. (transitive with com) to match; to go with (to form a good combination with)
    Este casaco não vai bem com os sapatos.
    This jacket doesn't go well with the shoes.
  13. (transitive with com) to like or tolerate someone or something
    Parece que ninguém vai comigo.
    It seems nobody likes me.
  14. (transitive with por) to follow (to take into account when making choices)
    Vai pela razão, não pelos sentimentos.
    Follow reason, not feelings.
    Se a luz não acender, pode encontrar o livro indo pelo tato.
    If the light doesn’t turn on, you can find the book by following your sense of touch.
    Vai por mim.
    Trust me.
  15. (transitive with de) to range from (to encompass values between two given extremes)
    As perguntas iam do fácil ao difícil.
    The questions ranged from easy to difficult.
  16. (poker, intransitive) to call (to match the amount of chips in the pot)
    • 2012, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, “Os pêssegos”, in Diálogos Impossíveis, Editora Objetiva, →ISBN, page 29:
      Não se ouvia mais nada, além dos ruídos naturais do pôquer. O clicar das fichas. Frases curtas: "Dou cartas." "Vou." "Não vou." "Pago pra ver." "Não é possível!"
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  17. (reflexive) to depart; to leave
    Synonyms: ir embora, sair
  18. (reflexive, euphemistic) to pass away; to depart; to die
    Synonyms: falecer, morrer

Usage notes

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The use of auxiliary ir with lexical ir (e.g. Eu vou ir para casa “I'm going to go home”) is sometimes proscribed. A single ir (Eu vou para casa, even though this also means the present “I'm going home”) or the future tense form (Eu irei para casa, which is rather formal) can be used instead.

Usually used in the preterite and with the pronoun preceding the verb:

Ele se foi.
He departed.
Elas se foram.
They departed.

Conjugation

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Quotations

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For quotations using this term, see Citations:ir.

Synonyms

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Romansch

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /v/ derive from corresponding conjugations of vādere, and those beginning with /m/ presumably from meāre.

Verb

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ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) go

Conjugation

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Scots

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Verb

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ir

  1. (Southern Scots) Second-person simple present form of to be
  2. (Southern Scots) Plural simple present form of to be

See also

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Spanish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /b/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.[1]

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈiɾ/ [ˈiɾ]
  • Rhymes: -iɾ
  • Syllabification: ir

Verb

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ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive) to go (away from speaker and listener)
    Nos gusta ir al cine.We like to go to the movies.
  2. (intransitive) to no suit or not suit something or someone.
  3. (said of things or people, intransitive) To be suitable or apt for its purpose, to match or suit well (of clothing).
    Una blusa negra no le va a esa falda.A black blouse doesn't suit that skirt..
  4. (intransitive) To head towards or lead to a place away from the speaker.
    Este camino va a la aldea.This road leads to the village
  5. (said of a thing, intransitive) To extend in time or space, from one point to another.
    Esta red va de un lado del campo al otro.
    this net extends from one side of the field to the other
    El evento va de las 9 de la mañana hasta las 5 de la tarde.
    The event extends from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
  6. (intransitive) In card games, to play.
    Juan estaba seguro de su mano, así que decidió ir con todo.
    Juan was confident in his hand, so he decided to go all in.
    Si no estás seguro de tu baraja, es mejor no ir en esta ronda.
    If you're not confident about your deck, it's better not to play this round
  7. (intransitive) To approach or consider something from a specific angle, or to direct attention towards a particular goal.
    Si por honestidad va, ¿qué cosa más honesta que la virtud? Ahora va de veras.
    If it's about honesty, what could be more honest than virtue? Now I am serious.
    ir en serio — ir de veras — ir de verdad
    be serious about something, make a real attempt at something
  8. (preceding the gerund of a verb, intransitive) Denotes an ongoing action with a sense of progression or movement through space or time. To go on, to carry on.
    Voy caminando.
    I go on walking
  9. (preceding the gerund of a verb, intransitive) An action or process is beginning to occur or unfold. To grow (dark), get (cloudy).
    Va anocheziendo.It starts to get dark
  10. (colloquial, commonly paired with pues, intransitive) Used ironically with certain adjectives or passive participles.
    Pues ya vas tu preparado para el exámen!.
    Well, you're ready for the exam! (implying that you are not prepared at all for the exam)
  11. (auxillary)
    1. Used with the past participle of transitive verbs to indicate undergoing the action of the verb.
      Ella va atormentada.
      She goes tormented (the fact of her being in a state of torment which isn't self imposed, she undergoes externally imposed torment)
    2. Used with the past participle of reflexive verbs to indicate being in a state caused by the verb.
      Ir arrepentido.Being remorseful
      Ir apresurado.Being in a hurry
      Él va enojado.He is angry
    3. (+ a + infinitive) to be going to (near future), to go
      Voy a decirle la verdad.I am going to tell her the truth.
  12. (intransitive, said of a thing, especially a sum of money) to be staked or bet in a dispute or competition. Only used in the third-person singular present indicative form van to entice someone to engage in a bet.
    Van cinco euros a que gana el MadridI bet five euros that Madrid will win the match
  13. (intransitive) Used with a hortative value to encourage or urge action. let's.
    Vamos a trabajar. Let's get working
  14. (intransitive) to habitually happen on a specific day or occasion. To habitually go. Only used with imperfective tenses.
    En verano, vamos a la playa.In summer, we go to the beach.
  15. (intransitive) (+ con + adjective) Used to describe the manner in which someone behaves or acts under specific conditions.
    "Ir con cuidado.Being careful (literally, “go with carefulness.”)
  16. (intransitive) Indicates an inclination towards a particular profession or career path, especially one that is perceived in other people based on their current skills or personality.
    Este niño va para médico.This child will become a doctor (perceived by the speaker).
  17. (intransitive) (+ por) Indicates the pursuit of a particular career or vocation.
    Ella va por la música.She is pursuing a career in music
  18. (intransitive) (+ a + por) or (+ por) To go fetch something.
    Voy por leche al supermercado.I'm going to the supermarket to get milk.
  19. (intransitive, of an element of a language) indicates adherence to a specific linguistic pattern or rules, like conjugation.
    Esa palabra solo va en plural.That word is only used in the plural.
  20. (intransitive) to come (towards or with the listener)
    Quiero ir contigo.
    I want to come with you.
    Iré a tu casa.
    I'll come to your house.
  21. (reflexive) to go away, to leave, to depart, to go (when the destination is not essential; when something or someone is going somewhere else)
    Synonyms: andarse, marcharse
    Lo siento. Tengo que irme.
    I'm sorry. I have to leave.
    Él se va a salvar al mundo otra vez.
    He's off to save the world again.
  22. (reflexive) to leak out (with liquids and gasses), to boil away, to go flat (gas in drinks)
  23. (reflexive) to overflow
  24. (reflexive) to go out (lights)
  25. (reflexive) to finish, to wear out, to disappear (e.g. money, paint, pains, mechanical parts)
  26. (reflexive) to die
  27. (reflexive, informal) to break wind, to fart
  28. (reflexive, informal) to wet/soil oneself (i.e., urinate or defecate in one's pants)
  29. (reflexive, vulgar) to come, to cum, to ejaculate, to orgasm

Usage notes

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  • ir is similar to estar in many senses.
    • Estar + gerund expresses the fact that the action of the verb is happening on the immediate present, with no inherent sense of past or future movement through time or space. It's the standard and more common expression.
    • "Ella está cantando" (She is singing) could imply:
      • Current Action (She is singing right now)
      • Continuous State (She is currently engaged in an event where she regularly sings, but might not be doing so at the moment)
      • (now (dated) or (formal)): Habitual action "she sings in the morning every day"
    • ir + gerund expresses a kind of iterative or durative aspect. It Emphasizes that the action involves movement or change over time, particularly along a longer process or journey, one that will usually be continued into the future. It is less common in casual speech and is mostly found in formal or literary works.
    • "Ella va cantando" (She goes on singing) could imply:
      • She is moving and singing, either simultaneously or independently (She could move, stop to sing, and then continue moving). Either moving and singing with no defined direction through different locations (She goes around singing wherever she is) or along a specified path.
      • The continuous and habitual nature and development of the action over the past, present and often future (She sings little by little and improves over time) Emphasizes progression and the gradual unfolding of a habitual action.
  • The basic meaning "go" applies to any kind of animate or inanimate motion: walk, ride, sail, fly, etc.
  • The voseo imperative of ir is typically replaced by the imperative of andar, which has the form andá,[2] though the form i is sometimes used as well.

Conjugation

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The forms imos and ides for the first person plural and second person plural have been attested in older versions of Spanish.

Derived terms

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ Joan Coromines, José A. Pascual (1983–1991) Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos
  2. ^ “Spanish from Argentina: That Voseo Thing”, in (Please provide the book title or journal name)[1], 2015 October 9 (last accessed)

Further reading

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Sumerian

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Romanization

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ir

  1. Romanization of 𒅕 (ir)

Welsh

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Etymology

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From Proto-Brythonic *ir (compare Cornish yr), from Proto-Celtic *ɸūros (compare Irish úr), from Proto-Indo-European *puHrós, from Proto-Indo-European *pewH- (to be clean, pure). Doublet of pur.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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ir (feminine singular ir, plural irion, equative ired, comparative irach, superlative iraf)

  1. raw, unprocessed
  2. fresh, succulent

Mutation

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Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ir unchanged unchanged hir
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

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  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ir”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yapese

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Pronoun

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ir

  1. Third-person singular pronoun; he, she, it