Alemannic German edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German ir, from Proto-Germanic *jīz, a variant of *jūz.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. you (plural)

Declension edit

Aragonese edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin īre.

Verb edit

ir

  1. go

Chuukese edit

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. them

Related terms edit

Danish edit

 
Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology edit

Either the old word for "copper" or some derivation from it: Old Danish eer (copper), Old Norse eir, from Proto-Germanic *aiz.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈiɐ̯], [ˈiɐ̯ˀ]

Noun edit

ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Elfdalian edit

Verb edit

ir

  1. singular present of wårå

Galician edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese ir, from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /b/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.

Verb edit

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)
ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fum or fui, past participle ido, reintegrationist norm)

  1. to go
  2. to work, function, run
    Vai ou non vai? —Non vai.
    Does that work or does it not work? No, it doesn't work.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • ir” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • ir” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • ir” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • ir” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Interlingua edit

Etymology edit

From Latin īre, active present infinitive of ; which its conjugation also influenced by French aller (present indicatives vais, vas, va, and vont all from Latin vadō).

Verb edit

ir

  1. to go

Conjugation edit

Antonyms edit

Kaera edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Alor–Pantar *jira.

Noun edit

ir

  1. water

References edit

  • Gary Holton and Laura Robinson, The Internal History of the Alor-Pantar language family, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • Marian Klamer, One item, many faces: ‘come’ in Teiwa (2010, in wing & Klamer) and Kaera (2014, in Schapper)
  • Gary Holton, Marian Klamer, František Kratochvíl, Laura C. Robinson, Antoinette Schapper, The Historical Relations of the Papuan Languages of Alor and Pantar, Oceanic Linguistics 2012:1

Latgalian edit

Etymology edit

Shortened form of irā, from Proto-Baltic *irā. Akin to Latvian ir.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ir/
  • Hyphenation: ir

Verb edit

ir

  1. third-person indicative present of byut

Usage notes edit

  • ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while irā is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

References edit

  • Nicole Nau (2011) A short grammar of Latgalian, München: LINCOM GmbH, →ISBN, page 48

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Ancient Greek χείρ (kheír).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ir n sg (indeclinable, no genitive)

  1. (rare, anatomy) hand

Declension edit

Not declined; used only in the nominative and accusative singular, singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative ir
Genitive
Dative
Accusative ir
Ablative
Vocative

Synonyms edit

References edit

  • ir”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ir in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette

Latvian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Baltic *irā (cf. dialectal, archaic forms irād, iraid, irāg, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic єстъ (estŭ), Russian есть (jestʹ), Lithuanian dialectal ẽsti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential (“there is”) meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm (I am) is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *irā is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè (look!)), the particle and conjunction ir (both... and...), a noun with the meaning “existence,” “reality,” “thing,” or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -extension.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; third-person singular present indicative of būt
  2. (they) are; third-person plural present indicative of būt
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; third-person singular imperative of būt
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; third-person plural imperative of būt

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *h₂r̥ of Proto-Indo-European *h₂er- (so, then; question particle) (whence also Latvian ar (with); see there for more). The original meaning “and” (compare Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian ir̃ (and), Old Prussian ir (also), er ((along) with), Ancient Greek ἄρα, ἄρ', ῥά (ára, ár', rhá, so, then, therefore).[1]

Conjunction edit

ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    gribējas ir smieties, ir raudātone wanted both to laugh and to cry
    nāca ir jaunie, ir vecieboth the young and the old came
    tolaik ir tēvs, ir māte bija mirušiat that time, both the father and the mother had died
    tā bija droša, interesanta un glīta meitene, kas prata būt ir jautra, ir nopietnathat was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts kā jau nakts: ir mēness spīd, ir tālē rūsa plaiksnīthe night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms edit

Particle edit

ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. arī
    Ludis nolēca lielā dubļu pančkā un tur ir palika, ratiem pakaļ skatīdamiesLudis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    Dūdums pateica: “man vēl laika diezgan”, un pārliecināt viņu par piegādes normu nodošanu pirms termiņa tā ir neizdevās — Dūdums said: “I still have enough time,” and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for delivery before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas viņam ir prātā nenākthat doesn't even come to his mind
    krūmos ir pa naktīm guļot, pilsētā viņš parādoties retireally sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ir”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN

Lithuanian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ir (and, also), compare Latvian ir, Old Prussian ir (and, even), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂r̥- (thus, so); compare Ancient Greek ἄρα (ára, so, then, consequently). If the original meaning was "fittingly, accordingly", the root may be identical to *h₂er- (fit together), see artì (near) for more.

Proto-Slavic *i (and, even) is probably not related.

Conjunction edit

ir̃

  1. (coordinating, cumulative) and, too
  2. (coordinating, illative) and, so
    Bùvo gražùs óras, ir̃ mẽs nùtarėme keliáuti. - the weather was nice, and (=so) we decided to travel.
  3. (coordinating, correlative) bothand

Particle edit

ir̃

  1. (emphatic) even, and
    Mán ir̃ nepavỹko padarýt! - I didn't even manage that!
  2. (emphatic) exactly, just, precisely
    Jìs ir̃ yrà tàs žmogùs, apiẽ kùrį kal̃bame. - It's him that we're talking about
  3. (interrogative) and, so
    , ir̃ kàs! - So what!

Related terms edit

Middle Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, from Proto-Germanic *jūz. Compare German ihr.

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. ye, you (plural) (only in Southeastern texts)

Further reading edit

ir - instituut voor de Nederlandse taal

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Determiner edit

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (her)

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (hers)

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire (her)

Middle High German edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German ir, from Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. you: nominative plural of du

Descendants edit

  • Alemannic German: ir
  • Bavarian:
  • Central Franconian: ühr, ihr, dihr (d- from verb ending by rebracketing)
  • German: ihr
  • Rhine Franconian:
    • Pennsylvania German: dihr
  • Yiddish: ⁧איר(ir), ⁧איהר(ihr)

Mòcheno edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ir, from Old High German ir, from Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, from Proto-Germanic *jīz. Cognate with German ihr, English ye.

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. you (plural)

Inflection edit

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

References edit

Old High German edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *jiʀ, variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. you (second-person plural pronoun)
  2. (polite) you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • late 9th century, Otfrid of Weissenburg, Letter to Bishop Salomo of Constance v. 5-7:
      Lékza ih therara búachi / iu sentu in suábo richi,
      thaz ir irkíaset ubar ál, / oba siu frúma wesan scal;
      Oba ir hiar fíndet iawiht thés / thaz wírdig ist thes lésannes:
      I send to you in Swabia the selection of books,
      so that you can decide above all if it will be useful;
      [and] if you find here something that is worthy of being read.
      (quoted in and tr. by Horst J. Simon in Taavitsainen & Jucker 2003:88)

Usage notes edit

Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in Modern German Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in late Old High German.

Inflection edit

Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih

Descendants edit

  • Middle High German: ir
    • Alemannic German: ir
    • Bavarian:
    • Central Franconian: ühr, ihr, dihr (d- from verb ending by rebracketing)
    • German: ihr
    • Rhine Franconian:
      • Pennsylvania German: dihr
    • Yiddish: ⁧איר(ir), ⁧איהר(ihr)

References edit

  1. Armitage, Lionel. (1911) An Introduction to the study of Old High German, p 200.

Old Swedish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old East Norse *īʀ (compare West Norse ér), from Proto-Germanic *jīz, variant of *jūz.

Pronoun edit

īr

  1. you (plural)

Declension edit

Descendants edit

  • Swedish: I, ni (← hafven I)

Old Welsh edit

Etymology edit

Ultimately from Proto-Celtic *sindos.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

ir

  1. (definite article) the
    • 9th c., Oxoniensis Prior (Bodleian Library, Oxford), v. 234:
      ir pimphet eterin
      the fifth bird

Descendants edit

Portuguese edit

Alternative forms edit

  • hir (obsolete)
  • yr (obsolete)

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /v/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.

Pronunciation edit

 
 

Verb edit

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive, or transitive with para or a or em or até) to go (to move to a destination)
    Vamos a pé?
    Do we go on foot?
    Eles foram ao centro comercial.
    They went to the shopping centre.
    Queríamos ir para casa.
    We wanted to go home.
  2. (auxiliary, with an infinitive) will; to be going to; forms the future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato.
    I will buy a shoe.
    Nós não íamos fazer nada.
    We weren’t going to do anything.
  3. (auxiliary, with a gerund) to keep on; to go on; ~ on; forms the continuative aspect
    A água vai escorrendo até acabar.
    The water keeps on leaking until it is all gone.
  4. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to go; to leave; to depart
    Os homens já se foram todos.
    All the men have left already.
  5. (intransitive, or transitive with para or em or a) to attend; to go to (to be present in an event)
    Sinto muito, não poderei ir à sua festa.
    I’m sorry, I won’t be able to go to your party.
  6. (transitive with até) to go on until; to last to
    A batalha foi até as duas da manhã.
    The battle went on until two AM.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with em) to do; to fare (to have a good or bad result)
    Fui muito mal em quase todas as provas.
    I did very bad in nearly all the tests.
  8. (intransitive) to be doing (formula used in greetings)
    “Como vai?” “Vou bem, obrigado.”
    “How are you doing?” “I am doing fine, thanks.”
  9. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to be gone (depleted, destroyed; no longer usable)
    Porcaria! Minha TV se foi.
    Damn it! My TV is gone.
  10. (euphemistic, takes a reflexive pronoun) to leave us; to depart (to die)
    Uma oração para os que já se foram.
    A prayer for those who have already left us.
  11. (intransitive) to go (to begin an action or process)
    Um, dois, três, vai!
    One, two, three, go!
    O sinal verde ainda não foi!
    The green light still didn’t light up.
    Vamos!
    Get on with it!
  12. (transitive with com) to match; to go with (to form a good combination with)
    Este casaco não vai bem com os sapatos.
    This jacket doesn't go well with the shoes.
  13. (transitive with com) to like or tolerate someone or something
    Parece que ninguém vai comigo.
    It seems nobody likes me.
  14. (transitive with por) to follow (to take into account when making choices)
    Vai pela razão, não pelos sentimentos.
    Follow reason, not feelings.
    Se a luz não acender, pode encontrar o livro indo pelo tato.
    If the light doesn’t turn on, you can find the book by following your sense of touch.
    Vai por mim.
    Trust me.
  15. (transitive with de) to range from (to encompass values between two given extremes)
    As perguntas iam do fácil ao difícil.
    The questions ranged from easy to difficult.
  16. (poker, intransitive) to call (to match the amount of chips in the pot)
    • 2012, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, “Os pêssegos”, in Diálogos Impossíveis, Editora Objetiva, →ISBN, page 29:
      Não se ouvia mais nada, além dos ruídos naturais do pôquer. O clicar das fichas. Frases curtas: "Dou cartas." "Vou." "Não vou." "Pago pra ver." "Não é possível!"
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  17. (reflexive) to depart; to leave
    Synonyms: ir embora, sair
  18. (reflexive, euphemistic) to pass away; to depart; to die
    Synonyms: falecer, morrer

Usage notes edit

The use of auxiliary ir with lexical ir (e.g. Eu vou ir para casa “I'm going to go home”) is sometimes proscribed. A single ir (Eu vou para casa, even though this also means the present “I'm going home”) or the future tense form (Eu irei para casa, which is rather formal) can be used instead.

Usually used in the preterite and with the pronoun preceding the verb:

Ele se foi.
He departed.
Elas se foram.
They departed.

Conjugation edit

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:ir.

Synonyms edit

Romansch edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /v/ derive from corresponding conjugations of vādere, and those beginning with /m/ presumably from meāre.

Verb edit

ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) go

Conjugation edit

Scots edit

Verb edit

ir

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of to be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of to be

See also edit

Spanish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin īre. The forms beginning with /b/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin vādere; those beginning with /f/ derive from corresponding forms of Latin esse.[1]

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈiɾ/ [ˈiɾ]
  • Rhymes: -iɾ
  • Syllabification: ir

Verb edit

ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive) to go (away from speaker and listener)
    Nos gusta ir al cine.
    We like to go to the movies.
  2. (intransitive) to come (towards or with the listener)
    Quiero ir contigo.
    I want to come with you.
    Iré a tu casa.
    I'll come to your house.
  3. (auxiliary) to be going to (near future), to go (+ a + infinitive)
    Voy a decirle la verdad.
    I am going to tell her the truth.
  4. (reflexive) to go away, to leave, to depart, to go (when the destination is not essential; when something or someone is going somewhere else)
    Synonyms: andarse, marcharse
    Lo siento. Tengo que irme.
    I'm sorry. I have to leave.
    Él se va a salvar al mundo otra vez.
    He's off to save the world again.
  5. (reflexive) to leak out (with liquids and gasses), to boil away, to go flat (gas in drinks)
  6. (reflexive) to overflow
  7. (reflexive) to go out (lights)
  8. (reflexive) to finish, to wear out, to disappear (e.g. money, paint, pains, mechanical parts)
  9. (reflexive) to die
  10. (reflexive, informal) to break wind, to fart
  11. (reflexive, informal) to wet/soil oneself (i.e., urinate or defecate in one's pants)
  12. (reflexive, vulgar) to come, to cum, to ejaculate, to orgasm

Usage notes edit

  • The basic meaning "go" applies to any kind of animate or inanimate motion: walk, ride, sail, fly, etc.
  • The voseo imperative of ir is typically replaced by the imperative of andar, which has the form andá,[2] though the form i is sometimes used as well.

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Joan Coromines; José A. Pascual (1983–1991) Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos
  2. ^ “Spanish from Argentina: That Voseo Thing”, in (please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 9 October 2015

Further reading edit

Sumerian edit

Romanization edit

ir

  1. Romanization of 𒅕 (ir)

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Brythonic *ir (compare Cornish yr), from Proto-Celtic *ɸūros (compare Irish úr), from Proto-Indo-European *puHrós, from Proto-Indo-European *pewH- (to be clean, pure). Doublet of pur.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

ir (feminine singular ir, plural irion, equative ired, comparative irach, superlative iraf)

  1. raw, unprocessed
  2. fresh, succulent

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ir unchanged unchanged hir
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ir”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yapese edit

Pronoun edit

ir

  1. Third-person singular pronoun; he, she, it