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U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
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Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition一一)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №4

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial

𢦘

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*suːm, *suːms
*suːm

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”. Triplication of (“one”).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sam/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑm/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sam ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10963
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. three
    2. A surname​.

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (さん) (san)
    • Korean: (, sam)
    • Vietnamese: tam ()

    Others:

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /samH/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑmH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ samH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three times

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10965
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːms/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. repeatedly; thrice
        ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
                 
    A
                 
    J Q K 小王 (black), 大王 (red)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. three

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1Edit

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  2 3 4  > 
        Cardinal :
    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    */sam//samu//saɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

    In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana さん, rōmaji san)

    1. three, 3
      Synonym: スリー (surī)
    2. third
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (katakana サン, rōmaji san)

    1. three
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨mi1/mi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji mi)

    1. three
       () () () ()、[…]
      hi, fu, mi, yo, […]
      one, two, three, four, […]
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    みい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /mi//miː/

    Shift from mi above.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana みい, rōmaji )

    1. (colloquial) three
       (ひい) (ふう) (みい) (よお) (いつ) (むう) (なあ) (やあ) (こお) (とお)
      hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
      one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (set sam))

    1. three

    ReferencesEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tam, tâm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.