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U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
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Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition一一)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №4

Derived glyphsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial

𢦘

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*suːm, *suːms
*suːm

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10963
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːm/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. three
  2. A surname​.

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (さん) (san)
  • Korean: (, sam)
  • Vietnamese: tam ()

Others:

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/samH/
Li
Rong
/sɑmH/
Wang
Li
/sɑmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ samH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three times

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10965
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːms/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. repeatedly; thrice
      ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Normal
(小写, lower case)


亿

万亿
Financial
(大写, upper case)





亿

万亿
Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
             
A
             
J Q K 小王 (black), 大王 (red)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. three

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (Financial/formal form):

Etymology 1Edit

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal :
Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

*/sam//samu//saɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

(hiragana さん, rōmaji san)

  1. three, 3
    Synonyms: スリー (surī)
  2. third
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

(katakana サン, rōmaji san)

  1. three
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨mi1/mi/

From Old Japanese.

Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji mi)

  1. three
     () () () ()、[...]
    hi, fu, mi, yo, [...]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
みい
Grade: 1
Irregular

/mi//miː/

Shift from mi above.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

(hiragana みい, rōmaji )

  1. (colloquial) three
     (ひい) (ふう) (みい) (よお) (いつ) (むう) (なあ) (やあ) (こお) (とお)
    hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
    (please add an English translation of this example)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sam)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: sam, Yale: sam)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: set, McCune-Reischauer: set, Yale: seys)
  1. three

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tam, tâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.