See also: Ξ, , , , , and
U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition or ⿱𠄟)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №4

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

𢦘
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”. Triplication of (“one”).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: sānr - (1) "the other woman; the other man", (2) "rfdef".
Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sam/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑm/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sam ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10963
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. three
    2. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) the other woman; the other man
    3. (Mainland China, slang, neologism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    4. A surname​.
    See alsoEdit
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
                 
    尖兒尖儿
                 
    鉤兒钩儿 圈兒圈儿, 皮蛋 (regional) K 小王 (black), 大王 (red), 小鬼 (black), 大鬼 (red)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (さん) (san)
    • Korean: (, sam)
    • Vietnamese: tam ()

    Others:

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /samH/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑmH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ samH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three times

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10965
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːms/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. repeatedly; thrice
        ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. three

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1Edit

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  2 3 4  > 
        Cardinal :
    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    */sam//samu//saɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

    In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (さん) (san

    1. three, 3
      Synonym: スリー (surī)
    2. third
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (サン) (san

    1. three
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨mi1/mi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    () (mi

    1. three
      ()()()()、[…]
      hi, fu, mi, yo, […]
      one, two, three, four, […]
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    みい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /mi//miː/

    Shift from mi above.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (みい) (

    1. (colloquial) three
      (ひい)(ふう)(みい)(よお)(いつ)(むう)(なあ)(やあ)(こお)(とお)
      hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
      one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

    Coordinate termsEdit

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular (れい) (rei)
    (ゼロ) (zero)
    (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (よん) (yon)
    () (shi)
    () (go) (ろく) (roku) (なな) (nana)
    (しち) (shichi)
    (はち) (hachi) (きゅう) (kyū)
    () (ku)
    (じゅう) ()
    Formal (いち) (ichi) () (ni) (さん) (san) (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular (きゅう)(じゅう) (kyūjū) (ひゃく) (hyaku)
    (いっ)(ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
    (さん)(びゃく) (sanbyaku) (ろっ)(ぴゃく) (roppyaku) (はっ)(ぴゃく) (happyaku) (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (いち)(まん) (ichiman) (いち)(おく) (ichioku)
    Formal (いち)(まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(ちょう) (itchō) (はっ)(ちょう) (hatchō) (じゅっ)(ちょう) (jutchō) (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (set sam))

    1. Hanja form? of (three).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: tam (()(cam)(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
    : Nôm readings: tam[1][2][3][4][5][6], ba[1], tám[5]

    1. Hán tự form of tam (three).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit