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U+56DB, 四
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56DB

[U+56DA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56DC]
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Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 31, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田金 (WC), four-corner 60210, composition丿(GHTV) or ⿴(JK))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 216, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4682
  • Dae Jaweon: page 439, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 710, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+56DB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l̥ʰids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hljids
*hrids

The word "four" was written as before Western Zhou and appeared in late Spring and Autumn period. This alternative form was used to prevent confusion of and or in vertical writing. It was standardized in Qin dynasty.

The bronzeware style of the character featured a repositioning of those four lines inside ; this later evolved into the combination used today of (“mouth”) and (“divide”) which meant a dispersal of breath. It could thus be said that four is a borrowed meaning for this character. The original sense is preserved in (OC *hrids), by adding an extra .

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ləj.

PronunciationEdit


Note: si3 - rare.
Note:
  • sé - vernacular;
  • sé̤ṳ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Taiwan, Singapore, Penang:
      • sì - vernacular;
      • sù/sìr - literary.
    • Jinjiang, Philippines:
      • sì - vernacular and literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /siH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjɪH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /siH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siH/
    Wang
    Li
    /siH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.li[j]-s/
    English four

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12022
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljids/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. four
    2. (music) la (musical note)
    3. (printing) English; The size of type between 小四 (little 4) and 小三 (little 3), standardized as 14 point.

    Usage notesEdit

    As superstition, (MC siɪH) is avoided because it is similar to (MC sˠiɪX, “death”) in sound.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    See alsoEdit

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
                 
    尖兒尖儿
                 
    鉤兒钩儿 圈兒圈儿, 皮蛋 (regional) K 小王 (black), 大王 (red), 小鬼 (black), 大鬼 (red)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo2 → */jə//jo/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji yo)

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  3 4 5  > 
        Cardinal :
    1. four, 4
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    よん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Shift from yo above,[1][2] influenced by analogy by the final sound of preceding number (san, three).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana よん, rōmaji yon)

    1. four, 4
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /si//ɕi/

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪH).

    Compare modern Hakka (si).

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (financial form)

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. four, 4

    Usage notesEdit

    Due to Chinese influence, (shi) is sometimes avoided as it is homonymous to (shi, death).

    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. the fourth

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. four
    2. fourth
    3. quadruple
    4. here and there
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    すう
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    From Mandarin ().[1][2][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (katakana スー, rōmaji )

    1. four, 4
    Derived termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Japanese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    Regular  (れい) (rei)
     (ゼロ) (zero)
     (いち) (ichi)  () (ni)  (さん) (san)  (よん) (yon)
     () (shi)
     () (go)  (ろく) (roku)  (なな) (nana)
     (しち) (shichi)
     (はち) (hachi)  (きゅう) (kyū)
     () (ku)
     (じゅう) ()
    Formal  (いち) (ichi)  () (ni)  (さん) (san)  (じゅう) ()
    90 100 300 600 800 1,000 3,000 8,000 10,000 100,000,000
    Regular  (きゅう) (じゅう) (kyūjū)  (ひゃく) (hyaku)
     (いっ) (ぴゃく) (ippyaku)
     (さん) (びゃく) (sanbyaku)  (ろっ) (ぴゃく) (roppyaku)  (はっ) (ぴゃく) (happyaku)  (せん) (sen)
     (いっ) (せん) (issen)
     (さん) (ぜん) (sanzen)  (はっ) (せん) (hassen)  (いち) (まん) (ichiman)  (いち) (おく) (ichioku)
    Formal  (いち) (まん) (ichiman)
    1012 8×1012 1013 1016 6×1016 8×1016 1017 1018
     (いっ) (ちょう) (itchō)  (はっ) (ちょう) (hatchō)  (じゅっ) (ちょう) (jutchō)  (いっ) (けい) (ikkei)  (ろっ) (けい) (rokkei)  (はっ) (けい) (hakkei)  (じゅっ) (けい) (jukkei)  (ひゃっ) (けい) (hyakkei)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪH). Attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean ᄉᆞ (Yale: so).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (neok sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (four).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    MulamEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (ti5)

    1. four

    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Japonic *yə.

    Also used as 借訓 (shakkun) kana for ⟨yo2.

    NumeralEdit

    (yo2) (kana )

    1. four, 4

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (yo, yon)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: tứ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: tớ[1][2][4], tứ[2][3], [4]

    1. Hán tự form of tứ (four).
    2. Nôm form of (four; fourth).

    ReferencesEdit