This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Etymology 1Edit

Nominal suffix from Proto-Indo-European *-kos.


*-kъ m

  1. Deverbal, forms token nouns (usually with o-grade)
    *porkъ (sling)*perti (to propel, to strike)
    *borkъ (marriage)*bьrati (to pick, to collect)
    *dorkъ (scuffle; thornbush)*dьrati (to tear)
    *znakъ (sign, symbol)*znati (to know)
    *zorkъ (phantasm)*zьrěti (to watch, to observe)
    *mǫka (grief, hardship, torture) ← archaic *mьňati (to belittle, to grind) (compare the l-extension *mělь (finely ground))
  2. From expressive or onomatopaeic interjections, forms onomatopaeic action nouns referring to the respective interjection
    Synonyms: *-skъ, *-pъ
    *zvǫkъ (sound)*zvьněti (to ring)
    *pukъ (pop)*puxati (to blow, to puff)
    *vykъ (shout)*vyti (to howl)*vъjь! (woe, wail)
    *krikъ (cry, squeak)*kričati (to squeak)*kri-kri!
    *čikъ-čirikъ (chirp-chirp)*čikъ-čirikati (to tweet)*či-či!
  3. From verbs in a-theme declension or adjectives, forming agent nouns. Equivalent to *-akъ (see there for examples)
  4. From archaic ū-stem nouns, forms instruments or representees of the referred concept
    Synonym: *-yka
    *kъlykъ (fang, tusk)*kluti (to peck)*kolti (to wreck, to slaugher, to stab)
    *ęzykъ (tongue, language)Proto-Balto-Slavic *inźūˀ
  5. (Extension) From archaic i-stem nouns or adjectives. Equivalent to *-ьcь (see there for examples)
  6. (Extension) From archaic ŭ-stem nouns. Equivalent to *-ъkъ (see there for examples)
  7. (Extension) From masculine men-stem nouns. Neural mn̥-stems, such as *plemę or *vermę, were usually not extended
    *ęčьmykъ (barley)*ęčьmy (barley)
    *kamykъ (stone)*kamy (stone, rock)
    *kremykъ (flint)*kremy (flint)
    *polmykъ (flame)*polmy (flame)
    *remykъ (strap)*remy (strap, belt)
  8. Extension of en-stem
    *koręcь (snag, trunk)*korękъ*korę-
    *měsęcь (moon, month)*měsękъ*měsę-
    *zajęcь (rabbit)*zajękъ*zaję-
See alsoEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Adjectival suffix from Proto-Indo-European *-kos, usually attached to former u-stem or i-stem adjectives. Akin to Proto-Germanic *-ugaz, Proto-Germanic *-īgaz and Latin -ucus, Latin -īcus.



  1. From basic prepositions
    *perkъ (direct, across)*per (fore, across)
    *opakъ (reverse)*po (at, by, afterwards)
    *pakъ (again, then) (only as an adverb)*pa- (later)
  2. (Extension) From former ŭ-stem adjectives, equivalent to *-ъkъ
  3. (Extension) From former i-stem adjectives, equivalent to *-ikъ
    *velikъ (glorious)*velьjь (great)
    *mьnikъ (miniature)*mьňьjь (smaller)
See alsoEdit


Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Denotational suffix from Proto-Indo-European *-kos or *-ḱos.



  1. From basic demostratives or particles, forms determiners for manner or amount. The neutral or feminine forms of these determiners could act as adverbs
    *takъ (so that)*tъ (that one)
    *jakъ (such one)*jь (this one, previously mentioned)
    *sicь (such that)*sь (this one here)
    *kakъ (how)*kъjь (who)
    *čakъ (even so)*čьjь (which)
    *vьśаkъ (anyway)*vьśь (all)
    *jьnаkъ (otherwise)*jьnъ (other, different)
    *tukъ (here)*tu (here, demonstrative for location)
    *dekъ (where, so that)*de (locative particle)
    *nekъ (let/may it be so)*ne (negative particle)