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LatvianEdit

 ūdens on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Ūdens
 
Ūdens molekula (H₂O)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *ūden- (or perhaps from Proto-Balto-Slavic *wandō), from the r/n-heteroclitic Proto-Indo-European noun *wódr̥, *wédōr, itself perhaps from a stem *aw(e)- (to moisten) with an extra -d (*awed, *awd, *ud, *ūd). In Latvian, only the n-form of the stem survived in ūdens, but the r-form can be seen in the related term ūdrs (otter). The lack of initial v in Latvian also suggests that a specific dialectal term was generalized: v-initial forms can still be found in geographic names (e.g. the river Vadakste, the word vads in its dialectal senses: creek, swampy forest, etc., and place names derived from it, like Mēnešvads, Alkšņa vads, etc.). Cognates include Lithuanian vanduõ, dialectal unduõ, únduo, Old Prussian unds (masculine), wundan (neuter), Proto-Slavic *voda (Old Church Slavonic, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian вода (vodá), Czech voda, Polish woda), Old Church Slavonic вѣдро (vědro, small vessel), Russian ведро (vedró, bucket), Ukrainian відро (vidró), Czech vědro, Polish wiadro, Proto-Germanic *watōr (Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉 (wato), Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, English water, wet), Hittite wātar (< *wódr̥), Sanskrit उदन् (udán), Ancient Greek ὕδωρ (húdōr), Latin unda (wave) (from *ud- with an infixed -n-).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

ūdens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. water (transparent liquid substance formed by hydrogen and oxygen; H₂O)
    smagais ūdensheavy water (hydrogen peroxyde, H₂O₂)
    ūdens molekulawater molecule, H₂O
    tīrs, skaidrs ūdensclean, clear water
    dzeramais ūdensdrinking (lit. drinkable) water
    duļķains ūdensmuddy water
    mīksts, ciets ūdenssoft, hard water
    vārīts, destilēts, gāzēts ūdensboiled, distilled, carbonated water
    jūras, upes, lietus ūdenssea, river, rain water
    ūdens ceļš, ūdensceļš waterway
    saldūdens, sālsūdensfreshwater, saltwater
    atmosfēras, augsnes ūdensatmospheric, soil water
    artēziskais ūdensartesian water
    tējas, kafijas ūdenstea, coffee water (i.e., boiled for tea, coffee)
    svētais ūdensholy water
    ūdens saturs šķīdumāthe water content of a solution
    ūdens lāse, strūklaa drop, a spray of water
    ūdens tvaikswater vapor
    ūdens krājumi, resursiwater supplies, resources
    ūdens apgādewater supply (system)
    ūdens tek, plūst, pilwater is leaking, flowing, dripping
    smelt, dzert, attīrīt ūdenito draw, to drink, to purify water
    ūdenī šķīstoša vielaa substance soluble in water
    mazgāties aukstā ūdenīto wash in cold water
    ūdens tilpe, ūdenstilpewater body, wetland
    ūdens līmeniswater level
    virs, zem ūdensabove, under water
    ūdens nelaimesea (lit. water) accident
    ūdens riņķojums dabāthe cycle of water in nature
  2. (plural) waters (large amounts, large bodies of water)
    virszemes, sauszemes ūdeņisurface, land water (lit. waters)
    pazemes ūdeņigroundwater, underground water (lit. waters)
    ārstnieciskie ūdeņihealing waters (e.g., at a spa)
    palu ūdeņiflood water (lit. waters)
    termālie ūdeņithermal water) (lit. waters)
  3. (plural) water (a body, bodies of water with a specific use, or belonging to a specific region or country)
    zvejas ūdeņifishing waters
    teritoriālie ūdeņiterritorial waters
    iekšējie ūdeņiinternal, inland waters
    starptautiskie ūdeņiinternational waters
  4. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic, aqua- (using, relating to water)
    ūdens terapija, diētawater therapy, diet
    ūdens dziednīcawater (health) resort, spa
    ūdens apkurewater heating
    'ūdens turbīna ― water turbine
    'ūdens spainis, sūknis ― water bucket, pump
    ūdens pulksteniswater clock
    ūdens šķīdumswater solution
    ūdens krānswater valve
  5. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (relating to bodies of water)
    ūdens transportswater transport
    ūdenssportswater sports
    ūdensslēpeswater skis
    ūdens polowater polo
  6. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (which lives, is situated, in or near bodies of water, or in water-rich areas)
    ūdens augi, ūdensaugiaquatic plants
    ūdens lilija, ūdens roze, ūdensroze — water lily
    ūdens zāle, ūdenszāleseaweed (lit. water weed)
    ūdens dzīvnieki, ūdensdzīvniekiaquatic animals
    ūdens putni, ūdensputniaquatic birds
    ūdens gliemji, kukaiņiaquatic mollusks, insects
  7. (of cosmetic products) water (a water solution containing also alcohol, oils, herbal extracts)
    sejas ūdensface water
    tualetes ūdenseau-de-toilette, eau-de-cologne
  8. (colloquial, of texts, words) watery, uninteresting, boring; empty, meaningless
    ūdens gabalspiece of water (= contentless, excessively long text)
    tu slauc pareizu pienu, bet, mīļā māt, tavas meitas dzied dziesmas, kam ūdens klāt!you milk good milk, but, dear mother, your daughters sing songs that are covered with water

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ūdens”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7
  • ūdens in some Latvian dictionary at tezaurs.lv