ūdens on Latvian Wikipedia
Ūdens molekula (H₂O)


From Proto-Baltic *ūden- (or perhaps from Proto-Balto-Slavic *wandō[need ref.]), from the r/n-heteroclitic Proto-Indo-European noun *wódr̥, *wédōr, itself perhaps from a stem *aw(e)-(to moisten) with an extra -d (*awed, *awd, *ud, *ūd). In Latvian, only the n-form of the stem survived in ūdens, but the r-form can be seen in the related term ūdrs(otter). The lack of initial v in Latvian also suggests that a specific dialectal term was generalized: v-initial forms can still be found in geographic names (e.g. the river Vadakste, the word vads in its dialectal senses: creek, swampy forest, etc., and place names derived from it, like Mēnešvads, Alkšņa vads, etc.). Cognates include Lithuanian vanduõ, dialectal unduõ, únduo, Old Prussian unds (masculine), wundan (neuter), Proto-Slavic *voda (Old Church Slavonic, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian вода(vodá), Czech voda, Polish woda), Old Church Slavonic вѣдро(vědro, small vessel), Russian ведро(vedró, bucket), Ukrainian відро(vidró), Czech vědro, Polish wiadro, Proto-Germanic *watōr (Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉(wato), Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, English water, wet), Hittite wātar (< *wódr̥), Sanskrit उदन्(udán), Ancient Greek ὕδωρ(húdōr), Latin unda(wave) (from *ud- with an infixed -n-).[1]


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ūdens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. water (transparent liquid substance formed by hydrogen and oxygen; H₂O)
    smagais ūdens‎ ― heavy water (hydrogen peroxyde, H₂O₂)
    ūdens molekula‎ ― water molecule, H₂O
    tīrs, skaidrs ūdens‎ ― clean, clear water
    dzeramais ūdens‎ ― drinking (lit. drinkable) water
    duļķains ūdens‎ ― muddy water
    mīksts, ciets ūdens‎ ― soft, hard water
    vārīts, destilēts, gāzēts ūdens‎ ― boiled, distilled, carbonated water
    jūras, upes, lietus ūdens‎ ― sea, river, rain water
    ūdens ceļš, ūdensceļš‎ ― waterway
    saldūdens, sālsūdens‎ ― freshwater, saltwater
    atmosfēras, augsnes ūdens‎ ― atmospheric, soil water
    artēziskais ūdens‎ ― artesian water
    tējas, kafijas ūdens‎ ― tea, coffe water (i.e., boiled for tea, coffee)
    ūdens saturs šķīdumā‎ ― the water content of a solution
    ūdens lāse, strūkla‎ ― a drop, a spray of water
    ūdens tvaiks‎ ― water vapor
    ūdens krājumi, resursi‎ ― water supplies, resources
    ūdens apgāde‎ ― water supply (system)
    ūdens tek, plūst, pil‎ ― water is leaking, flowing, dripping
    smelt, dzert, attīrīt ūdeni‎ ― to draw, to drink, to purify water
    ūdenī šķīstoša viela‎ ― a substance soluble in water
    mazgāties aukstā ūdenī‎ ― to wash in cold water
    ūdens tilpe, ūdenstilpe‎ ― water body, wetland
    ūdens līmenis‎ ― water level
    virs, zem ūdens‎ ― above, under water
    ūdens nelaime‎ ― sea (lit. water) accident
    ūdens riņķojums dabā‎ ― the cycle of water in nature
  2. (plural) waters (large amounts, large bodies of water)
    virszemes, sauszemes ūdeņi‎ ― surface, land water (lit. waters)
    pazemes ūdeņi‎ ― groundwater, underground water (lit. waters)
    ārstnieciskie ūdeņi‎ ― healing waters (e.g., at a spa)
    palu ūdeņi‎ ― flood water (lit. waters)
    termālie ūdeņi‎ ― thermal water) (lit. waters)
  3. (plural) water (a body, bodies of water with a specific use, or belonging to a specific region or country)
    zvejas ūdeņi‎ ― fishing waters
    teritoriālie ūdeņi‎ ― territorial waters
    iekšējie ūdeņi‎ ― internal, inland waters
    starptautiskie ūdeņi‎ ― international waters
  4. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic, aqua- (using, relating to water)
    ūdens terapija, diēta‎ ― water therapy, diet
    ūdens dziednīca‎ ― water (health) resort, spa
    ūdens apkure‎ ― water heating
    'ūdens turbīna‎ ― water turbine
    'ūdens spainis, sūknis‎ ― water bucket, pump
    ūdens pulkstenis‎ ― water clock
    ūdens šķīdums‎ ― water solution
    ūdens krāns‎ ― water valve
  5. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (relating to bodies of water)
    ūdens transports‎ ― water transport
    ūdenssports‎ ― water sports
    ūdensslēpes‎ ― water skis
    ūdens polo‎ ― water polo
  6. (genitive, used adjectivally) water, aquatic (which lives, is situated, in or near bodies of water, or in water-rich areas)
    ūdens augi, ūdensaugi‎ ― aquatic plants
    ūdens lilija, ūdens roze, ūdensroze — water lily
    ūdens zāle, ūdenszāle‎ ― seaweed (lit. water weed)
    ūdens dzīvnieki, ūdensdzīvnieki‎ ― aquatic animals
    ūdens putni, ūdensputni‎ ― aquatic birds
    ūdens gliemji, kukaiņi‎ ― aquatic mollusks, insects
  7. (of cosmetic products) water (a water solution containing also alcohol, oils, herbal extracts)
    sejas ūdens‎ ― face water
    tualetes ūdens‎ ― eau-de-toilette, eau-de-cologne
  8. (colloquial, of texts, words) watery, uninteresting, boring; empty, meaningless
    ūdens gabals‎ ― piece of water (= contentless, excessively long text)
    tu slauc pareizu pienu, bet, mīļā māt, tavas meitas dzied dziesmas, kam ūdens klāt!‎ ― you milk good milk, but, dear mother, your daughters sing songs that are covered with water


Derived termsEdit


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ūdens”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7
  • ūdens in some Latvian dictionary at